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如何撰写开题报告,开展定量,定性分析

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如何撰写开题报告 开展定量 定性分析 定性定量分析 开题报告怎么写
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如何撰写开题报告、开展定 量、定性分析 How to write a research proposal qualitative and quantitative research methods How to write a research proposal What is a research proposal? ◦ A research proposal is intended to convince others that you have a worthwhile research project and that you have the competence and the work-plan to complete it. ◦ Generally, a research proposal should contain all the key elements involved in the research process and include sufficient information for the readers to evaluate the proposed study. How to write a research proposal Key components of a research proposal ◦ A description of the research problem. ◦ An argument as to why that problem is important. ◦ A review of literature relevant to the research problem. ◦ A description of the proposed research methodology. ◦ A description of how the research findings will be used and/or disseminated. How to write a research proposal Research proposal format ◦ English Version ◦ Chinese Version English is preferred How to write a research proposal  I. Research problem, research background (Literature Review), significance of the research 1.1 Research problem (研究对象) ◦ A clear and simple formulation of your research question ◦ e.g ◦ This study made and attempt to understand how students assess their peer’s essay writing and how they respond to their peers’ feedback. Specific research questions include:… ◦ 本文主要是以在校大学生为研究对象,通过维克多·弗洛姆的期 望理论分析安踏是怎样提高其在大学生中的满意度和保持大学 生忠诚度的。特别关注的是大学生的消费期望的组成因素以及 安踏如何有效地应用营销组合以满足这些期望。 How to write a research proposal 1.2 Research background (literature review) (研究背景) ◦ Why is this problem or question important? ◦ Who else has worked on this or similar problems? ◦ What methods were used? ◦ What were the results or conclusions of previous research?“ In this section, show the relevance of your research to other research that has been done. How to write a research proposal 1.3 Significance of the research (选题意义) -- the “rationale“: in what way is the research worth doing. Think about how your research: ◦ may resolve theoretical questions in your area ◦ may develop better theoretical models in your area ◦ may influence public policy ◦ may change the way people do their jobs in a particular field, or may change the way people live. ◦ other contributions your research will make? ◦ e.g 从安踏的成功可以看出,满足目标消费者的心理期望极其重 要。本文意图通过对安踏案例的分析,了解大学生对运动品牌 的心理期望,从而对从事运动服饰经营的商家提出一些建议。 How to write a research proposal II. Chief research contents and the anticipated results (including the thesis outline) 2.1 Research contents (outline) (论文提纲) ◦ Sample reading 2.2 Anticipated results (预期目标) ◦ Sample reading How to write a research proposal III. Intended research methods, design and procedures In this section, you provide your work plan and describe the activities necessary for the completion of your project. 3.1 Research method (拟采用的研究方法) ◦ Empirical or library-based research? ◦ Qualitative or Quantitative research? ◦ What method is appropriate for your research topic? Interview? Case study? Focus group? Observation? Survey? Experimentation? ◦ Justify your choice How to write a research proposal 3.2 Research design and procedure (研究设计和步骤 ) Empirical research design ◦ Hypothesis (if any) to be tested during data analysis ◦ Design –how you intend to collect data, what instruments will you use, a questionnaire, or an experiment? ◦ Subjects or participants - Who will take part in your study ? What kind of sampling procedure do you use? ◦ Procedure – to collect data, activities involved, instrument for data analysis, expected time length of each step? How to write a research proposal IV. Planed timetable for the research and the thesis The timetable should correspond to the timetable of the department The timetable should be workable V. References (At least 10 entries are needed, among which no less than 5 are in English) How to write a research proposal Sample reading: The evolution of a good research proposal 07届,李垚 Draft 1 Draft 2 Draft 3 Date analysis I Qualitative data analysis 1.1 Qualitative data are forms of information gathered in a nonnumeric form, such as: ◦ Interview transcript ◦ Field notes (notes taken in the field being studied) ◦ Video ◦ Audio recordings ◦ Images ◦ Documents (reports, meeting minutes, e-mails) Date analysis Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) is the range of processes and procedures whereby we move from the qualitative data that have been collected into some form of explanation, understanding or interpretation of the people and situations we are investigating. Date analysis Procedures used in qualitative data analysis ◦Read through all results formats, note down any points and ideas that are identified. ◦Go through the formats again, code the ideas and points. Keep a special note of useful quotes given by the respondents ◦Divide the coded data into representative categories and ideas ◦Generalize the categories ideas into research findings Date analysis II Quantitative data analysis 2.1 Quantitative data Based on meanings derived from numbers. Analysis is by the use of tables, diagrams and statistical methods based on the type of data (nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio) Date analysis 2.2 Types of data Nominal: ◦values are assigned to categories; ◦the categories can not be ranked; ◦the numbers assigned have not intrinsic meaning ◦e.g. Nationality, race, religion, gender… ◦Analysis: count frequency and calculate percentage Date analysis 2.2 Types of data Binary: ◦A special type of nominal data where there are only two categories ◦e.g gender: male, female Closed questions: yes. no ◦analysis: calculate the percentage or frequency Date analysis 2.2 Types of data Ordinal: ◦Assign numbers to categories that correspond to ranks; ◦Responses can be ranked from high to low ◦The distance between two neighboring categories is not necessarily the same ◦e.g. level of satisfaction over products, experience… ◦Analysis: calculate the percentage or average the result Date analysis 2.2 Types of data Interval ◦Have the properties of ordinal scales ◦The distance between two neighboring categories is not necessarily the same ◦e.g. Job satisfaction: from 1 (very unsatisfied) to 10 (very satisfies) ◦Analysis: average and various statistical calculation Date analysis 2.2 Types of data ratio ◦Have the properties of interval scales ◦Have a meaningful zero ◦e.g. age, salary, temperature, hours, number of students, cost, profit, distance, weight ◦Analysis: various mathematical and statistical calculation: mean. Mode, median, variance , … Date analysis 2.3 Data presentation Tables Graphs ◦Bar chart, pie chart, line graph 2.4 Sample reading
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