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【精品文档】01中英文双语对照毕业设计外文文献翻译:《哈利波特与阿兹卡班的囚徒》中语法隐喻类型

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The Journal of Applied Linguistics Vol. 5, Issue 1 Spring 2012 Types of Grammatical Metaphors in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban Nesa Nabifar Hamed Kazemzad Department of Literature and Foreign Languages, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran Grammatical Metaphor (GM) is one of the fresh language phenomena introduced by Halliday (1985) in the framework of functional grammar. Thompson (2004) states that the salient source of GM would be ‘Nominalization’ where a noun form attempts to represent a verb form or in other words, a verb form with its different process is represented in a noun form. He continues that any wording is ought to be either metaphorical or congruent wording. In this study the story of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was explored in search of GMs deployed throughout the first two chapters. This study tended to identify the instances of nominalization types of GM in the first two chapters of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and offer the congruent wording. As the next step, the congruent wordings were compared with metaphorical wording in order to find out the lexical density of each wording. The lexical density was obtained by Concordance software. The result of study illustrated , in a very crystal-clear way, the advantage of GM in adult writing which is stated to be one of the noticeable points regarding GM by Halliday (1985).The result obtained statistically revealed that the deployment of GM increases the lexical density, which again was claimed by Halliday (2004) as one of the other salient points about GM. Based on the findings of this study, some implications can be The Journal of Applied Linguistics Vol. 5, Issue 1 193 drawn for academic writing and reading as well as for teachers involved in writing and reading pedagogy. Keywords: Grammatical Metaphors, Types, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban Many language studies involve the exploration of the relationship between language and meaning. In fact, the relationship between words and meanings in one hand, and how they make such a meaningful make up on the other hand have always been of paramount interest for many of language scholars. Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), based on the work of Halliday (1985), deals with this relationship by developing the concept of Grammatical Metaphor (GM). GM is a phenomenon arising from the stratification of the content plane in a language. According to SFL, a language is a complex semiotic system with various strata (Halliday Halliday, 1985; Martin, 1992) yields a better understanding of language from the contextual and semogenic perspectives. According to studies in this field, GM is interrelated with the three meta-functions of language which are ideational, interpersonal and textual. GM is a critical resource for managing theme and information systems by which the textual meta-function of a text is realized (Ravelli,2003). GM As a phenomenon impacting on meta- functions and oriented to specific mode, field and tenor, GM has become a significant consideration with regards to the contextual analysis of language in use. GM is also a lexico-grammatical resource closely related to the three processes of semogenesis, namely, the evolution of human language (phylogenesis), the development of an individual speaker (ontogenesis), and the unfolding of a text (logogenesis) (Ravelli,1985). According to Halliday and Matthiessen (1999), the congruent and metaphorical expressions of a meaning are respectively the two poles of a continuum. To be more specific, the congruent expression evolves earlier in a language, emerges earlier in language development and comes earlier in a text, that is, a child uses congruent wordings in the early years of language acquisition. This connection between GM and the three axes of semohistory determines GM as a useful tool in describing and comparing language use in temporal sense (Halliday 1984 , 1985) in a separate chapter on this subject by the title of ‘Beyond the clause: Metaphorical modes of expression’. To introduce his newly born concept, Grammatical Metaphor, Halliday (1978) created a general framework outlining traditionally recognized types of ‘rhetorical transference’ or ‘figures of speech’: metaphor, metonymy and synecdoche (Taverniers, 2002, p.5). In fact, in order to create a theoretical background for the combination of lexical metaphor and GM, Halliday (1999) explains metaphor, metonymy and synecdoche through a grammatical view point. In other words, “there is such a thing as grammatical metaphor where the variation is essentially in the grammatical forms” (Halliday, 1985, p.320). Halliday (1994) presents the relationship between GM and LM more clearly by introducing ‘from above’ and ‘from below’ perspectives in SFL as shown in Figure 1. Nabifar and Kazemzad 198 Figure 1. Two perspectives on metaphor (after Halliday 1994/1985, p.342) In ‘from below’ perspective, the words are taken as starting point and then something is said about the meanings of these words while in ‘from above’ perspective, the starting point is a specific meaning and the relevant question is: ‘‘which are the different ways in which this meaning can be expressed or realized’’ (Taverniers, 2002, p.6). Ravelli (2003) taking the same view ‘from above’ view as Halliday, defines GM as the alternative realization of the same meaning. Alternative perspectives are The Journal of Applied Linguistics Vol. 5, Issue 1 199 visually represented in Figure 2.1 based on Halliday’s figure (1994/1985, as cited in Taverniers, 2002, p.6). Thompson (1994) introduced congruent form as the closer general interpretation in the outer world. Halliday (1985) claims that the text expressed through the most typical form of representation is congruent. In the study of the GM the terms of ‘congruence’ and ‘metaphor’ are employed to represent the different realizations of a given semantic configuration (Marie in particular, they create conceptual objects. The purpose of using an IGM is to render the lexis and grammar in the way the speaker or the writer wants in order to produce or inform a certain effect on his/her reader or audience. In Harry Potter, the goal is the conveyance of the intended meaning to the reader in a tempting and interesting way. Finally, it was found that, not always, a noun form standing as a sample of GM would be raised out of a verb form, but, sometimes without having a verb form, a noun form plays the role of a GM. Consider the following Examples: Example 8. A sudden emotion overtook him. Example 9. Suddenly he felt emotional. As illustrated in Examples 8 and 9, ‘emotion’ is a grammatical metaphor which stands for the verb of ‘feeling’ and does not have any verb form as its base form. Conclusion This paper investigated a particular lexico-grammatical resource, to which SFL refers to as IGM, in the story of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, as one of the bestselling books with wide world critical and readership success. The reason for choosing this source for a detailed linguistic analysis was its global fame. Developed mainly by Halliday (1985,1994), the notion of GM shows an original and innovative contribution that identifies and describes the fact that literary works, in writing and in speaking, are functionally oriented to accomplishing objectification and abstraction of their content. They achieve this functional goal through the linguistic means of GM, a resource that condenses information by expressing experiences and events in an incongruent form, as contrasted with the more customary congruent form that prevails in everyday language use. The predominant lexico-grammatical feature found in the story of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was the extensive and elaborate use of the nominal group, represented by nominalization. The Journal of Applied Linguistics Vol. 5, Issue 1 217 Based on the results, it was noticed that the overwhelming occurrence of GMs in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban increased the general volume of information the clause or the sentence expresses: the greater the number of included nominalizations, the greater the volume of the information expressed by the sentence. In the present study, it was also found that the material process was used more than other processes and the behavioral process was the second dominant process type. Finally, in most of the examples, the GMs co-occurred by an adjective while their verbal form could hardly express this impression with an adverb. As it was mentioned earlier, GM is as an important characteristic of written English, created through the grammatical process of derivation. In these two stories, the use of GM, as one of the main characteristics of highly literal texts, has made the tone of the writing to sound more abstract and more formal through placing high quality on the transference of information in an economical and condensed way. Thus, it can be concluded that the use of GM is an ideal device in literary discourse. The Authors Nesa Nabifar is an assistant professor of linguistics at Islamic Azad University of Tabriz. She received her Ph.D. in General Linguistics from University of Science and Research in Iran in 2010. She has published several articles attended national and international conferences on General and Applied Linguistics.Her research interests include discourse analysis , syntax, semantics and semitiocs . Hamed Kazemzad got his MA in English Language Teaching from Islamic Azad university of Tabriz.His main interest includes discourse analysis and translation. Nabifar and Kazemzad 218 References Eggins, S. (1994). An introduction to systemic functional linguistics. London: Continuum. Halliday, M.A.K. (1978). Language as a social semiotic. London: Edward Arnold. Halliday, M. A. K. (1985). An introduction to functional grammar. London: Arnold. Halliday, M. A. K.(1989).Spoken and written language. London:Oxford. Halliday, M. A. K.(1998).Things and relations :Re-grammaticising experience as technical knowledge. In JR. Martin & R.Veelceds, Reading science :critical and functional perspectives on discourses of science (pp.185- 235).London:Routledge Halliday, M. A. K. (1999). New ways of meaning: The challenge to applied Linguistics. In J. Webster (Eds.), (volume 3). London: Continuum. Halliday, M. A. K. (2003). On the architecture of human language. In J. Webster (Eds.), On Language and Linguistics (volume 3,pp.123-150). London: Continuum. Halliday, M. A. K. & Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. (1999). Construing experience through meaning: Alanguage-based approach to cognition. london: continuum. Halliday, M.A.K. & Matthiessen,C.M. I. M. (2004). An introduction to functional grammar. London: Arnold. Martin, J.R. (1992). English Text: System and structure. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Martin, J. R. , Matthiessen, M. I. M., & Painter, C. (1979). Working with functional grammar. New York: Arnold. Painter, C. (2005). The development of language as a resource for learning. In A. Hewings & M. Hewings (Eds.), Grammar and Context: An Advanced Resource Book, (pp.183-201). London: Routledge. Ravelli, J.L.(1985). Metaphor, mode and complexity: An exploration of co-varying patterns. B.A. (Hons) thesis, Department of Linguistics, University of Sydney. The Journal of Applied Linguistics Vol. 5, Issue 1 219 Ravelli, J. L. (1988). Grammatical metaphor: An initial analysis. In E. Steiner & R. Veitman (eds.) Oragmatics, Discourse and text: Some systemically-inspired approaches (pp133-147). London & New York: Pinter. Ravelli, J. L. (1999). Metaphor, mode and complexity: An exploration of co- varying patterns. (Monographs in Systemic Linguistics, 12.) Nottingham: Department of English andMedia Studies, Nottingham Trent University. Ravelli, J. L. (2003). Renewal of Connection: Integrating Theory and Practice in an Understanding of Grammatical Metaphor. In A. Simon-Vandenbergen, M. Taverniers, & J. L. Ravelli (Eds.), Grammatical metaphor: views from systemic functional linguistics, pp(234-332). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Taverniers. M. (2002) Systemic-Functional Linguistics and the notion of grammatical metaphor. A theoretical study and a proposal for a semiotic-functional integrative model. PhD dissertation, University of Ghent. Taverniers, M. (2004). Interpersonal grammatical metaphor as double scoping and double grounding. In A. Simon- Vandenbergen, M. Taverniers, & J. L. Ravelli (Eds.), Grammatical metaphor: Views from systemic functional linguistics (pp.26-45). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Thompson, J. (2004). Introducing functional grammar. London: Arnold. Vandenbergen, S., Marie, A., Taverniers, M., & Ravelli, L. (2003).Grammatical metaphor: views from systemic functional linguistics (ed.). Amsterdam: Benjamins. Yanning, Y. (2008). Typological interpretation of differences between Chinese and English ingrammatical metaphor. 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