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静脉炎的预防与护理ppt课件

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静脉炎的预防及护理ppt课件 静脉炎的预防与护理ppt课件 静脉炎的护理预防ppt课件 静脉炎的预防 静脉炎的预防及护理 静脉炎的预防及 护理 静脉炎的预防与护理 ppt课件 静脉炎的预防与护理
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The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 静脉炎预防与治疗 xiaoer The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. Ø 静脉炎可以引起败血症,增加病死率。 Ø 据报道,住院患者接受静脉给药者中,仅发 生输液性血栓性静脉炎者高达25%-42%。 Ø 据统计,新加坡医疗机构中,因静脉炎导致 的重复穿刺增加了输液器材消耗、治疗费用 和护理人力,总计每例病人增加的医疗费用 约32.16美元。 〔 背景 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. Ø 国内外相关报道中提出的静脉炎发生率差异较 大,最低为2%,最高达80%。 Ø 美国INS和疾病控制预防中心(centers fordiseases control and prevention,CDC)提出,医院内的静脉 炎发生率应控制在5%以内。 Ø 此外,美国INS指出,临床护士有责任和义务干 预静脉炎的发生和发展;并规定静脉炎的发生率 、严重程度、病因、治疗护理等内容均应记录在 病人的病历中。 〔 背景 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. Ø 导致病人住院时间延长 Ø 增加治疗费用 Ø 病人满意度下降 Ø 医患投诉 住院病人发生静脉炎的危害 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 定义: 静脉壁内膜的炎症反应,是一种进行性的 并发症。 血管瓣膜 血管内皮上皮 结缔组织 血管中层 血管外层 血管壁 瓣膜 血管内膜 结缔组织 血管中膜 血管外膜 动脉静脉 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. Ø 定义: 美国静脉输液协会(Infusion Nurses Society,INS)最新的静脉输液护理实践 标准将静脉炎定义为各种因素刺激导致 的静脉炎症表现,属于病人在接受输液 治疗过程中的不良反应。 静脉炎的定义 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 分级 美国INS 1998制订 0+ 无临床症状 1+ 红斑伴有或无疼痛,有或 无水肿。 2+ 红斑伴有或无疼痛,有或 无水肿,静脉条纹形成。 3+ 红斑伴有或无疼痛,有或 无水肿,静脉条纹形成, 可触及索状物。 0级 没有症状 1级 输液部位发红,有或不伴疼痛 2级 输液部位疼痛伴有发红和(或) 水肿。 3级 输液部位疼痛伴有发红和(或)水 肿,条索样物形成,可触摸到条索状 的静脉。 4级 输液部位疼痛伴有发红和(或) 水肿,条索样物形成,可触摸到条索 状和静脉2.5cm,有脓液渗出。 我国根据INS 标准制订[2] The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. II度静脉炎 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. Ill度静脉炎 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. Ø 药物自身作用 Ø 非药物作用机制 静脉炎的发生原因 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 药物自身作用 毒性作用 酸碱度 渗透压 患者自身的因素 静脉输液的位置 、场所、 速度、时间、 输入液的温度 其 他 不溶性颗粒 非药物作用机制 产生 原因 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 发生静脉炎的病理改变 当血管受到化学、物理和感染等因素刺激,可使血管内血 液的成分发生改变,血管内皮受到损伤,血管壁的通透性增 加,诱发炎症介质释放,从而出现局部组织液增加,发生红 肿热痛。刺激性药物与炎症细胞以及坏死内皮细胞堆积,极 易发生局部坏死及静脉血栓形成。 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. Ø 常规护理措施 Ø 药物疗法 Ø 物理疗法 Ø 中医疗法 静脉炎的防治 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 常规护理措施: Ø 1.避免操作不当导致静脉炎 Ø 2.提高静脉穿刺技术,合理使用静脉 Ø 3.避免药物及机械因素对血管的损害 Ø 4.采用加热处理,局部热敷 Ø 5.合理膳食补充营养 Ø 6.对输液患者的护理 Ø 7.对输注血管刺激性强的高危药品时 护理人员一定要加强巡回工作 Ø 5.控制微粒输入 Ø 6. The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 防治 无菌置管液体维护 场所 人员 静脉选择 穿刺技术 及时更换 正确选择 置管方式 配制 护理 敷料 加强 营养 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 药物疗法: 硫酸镁,因其高渗透作用能迅速消除局部组 织炎性水肿而广泛应用于临床 。用25%、50% 的硫酸镁湿敷明显降低了静脉炎的发生率。 用康惠尔水胶体敷料用于输液所致血管周围 损伤和静脉炎具有非常好的疗效 ,疗效明显优 于硫酸镁。 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 产生 机制 Ø 药物疗法: Ø 结果显示,在减轻疼痛方面,利多卡因湿敷效 果优于硫酸镁。山莨菪碱、高渗糖联合利多卡因 湿敷加保鲜膜包裹治疗静脉炎改善微循环及镇痛 作用。 Ø 应用局麻药物在静脉穿刺点近心端外敷1%地卡 因和皮下注射2%奴夫卡因可防止静脉炎的发生 。 Ø 湿润烧伤膏起到了消毒、杀菌、隔离、保护创 面,预防感染等功效。 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 物理疗法: Ø 低能量HeNe激光或紫外线照射治疗。特 点:两种物理因子的消炎、消肿、镇痛、 软化硬结等多重作用干预老年病人静脉炎 的护理,尤其对于局部有硬索状改变的Ⅱ 级、Ⅲ级静脉炎疗效显著。 Ø 新鲜马铃薯片外敷。作用:马铃薯内的胆 甾烷衍生物茄碱,可渗漏于皮下组织及血 管内,加快血液流通。起到活血化瘀,消 肿止痛的功效。 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 中医疗法: “三黄液”,中药六合丹,金黄膏和美得喜乳 膏等主要用于长期静脉注射刺激性较强的药物 如氨苄青霉素、氯化钾、红霉素等致注射部位 的静脉炎性渗出而引起的炎症症状. The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 小结 患者最大的满意患者最大的满意 减少静脉炎的发生 正确评估精湛技术精心护理及时治疗 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 思考题 • • 1.静脉炎的临床表现? • 2.静脉炎的药物治疗方法有哪些? 请回答 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 谢 谢 !
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