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《鱼我所欲也》ppt课件(23页)

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孟 子 天塘中学谭永清 学习目标: 1、掌握“欲、舍、甚、恶”等文言 词语的意义和用法。 2、正确分析并理解文章的论 证思路和论证方法。 3、了解孟子“舍生取义” 的道德主张。 孟子(前372至前289): 是战国时期的思想家、教育家、散文家, 名轲,字子舆,战国时期邹国人。孔子的孙子子思的 再传弟子,孟子是继孔子之后的儒家学派最有影响的 大师,后来将他和孔子并称“孔孟”有“亚圣”之称。 他在政治上主张“法先王”,在孔子“仁”学的基础上, 提出了系统的“仁政”学说,并借此游说齐、梁等国, 曾一度为齐国客卿。。 解题 孟子主张人性是善的他说:“人性之善也 ,犹水之就下也。人无有不善,水无有不下 。”他认为人生而具有恻隐之心、羞恶之心、 辞让之心、是非之心。只要不使这些“善心 ”丧失,就在道德方面具备“仁义理智”。 本文行文流畅,论证严密;引譬设喻, 生动形象;排比铺陈,气势恢弘。体现了《 孟子》一书文笔的特点。 返回 w ù 死亦我所恶 恶 è 恶劣 wéi 凡可以避患者何不为也 为 wèi 向为身死而不受 sāng 奔丧 丧 sàng 贤者能勿丧耳 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 翻译: 鱼,我所欲也,熊掌,亦我所欲也, 鱼,是我喜爱的东西,熊掌,也是我喜爱的东西, 二者不可得兼,舍鱼而取熊掌者也。 (如果)两种东西不能同时得到,(那么),(我 要)舍弃鱼而选取熊掌。 生,亦我所欲也,义,亦我所欲也, 生命也是我喜爱的东西,正义也是我喜爱的东西, 二者不可得兼,舍生而取义者也。 (如果)两种东西不能同时得到,(那么),(我 要)舍弃生命而选取正义。 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 生亦我所欲,所欲有甚于生者,故不为苟得也。 生命也使我喜爱的东西,(然而)我喜爱的东西还有 比生命更为重要的,所以我不去干苟且偷生的事情。 死亦我所恶wù,所恶有甚于死者,故患有所不避也。 死亡也(是)我厌恶的事情,(但我)所厌恶的,还 有比死亡更为厉害的,所以祸患(我)也有不躲避的 。 如使人之所欲莫甚于生,则凡可以得生者何不用也? 如果人们喜爱的没有比生命更重要的,那么一切可以 用来保全生命的方法(有)什么不可以采用呢?使人 之所恶莫甚于死者,则凡可以避患者何不为也?如果 人们厌恶的事情没有比死亡更厉害的,那么一切可以 用来躲避祸患(而保全性命)的手段(有)什么不能 做(的)呢? To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 由是则生而有不用也;由是则可以避患而有不为也。 按照这些方法去做就(可以)生存,然而却有人不采 用它;按照这些方法去做就(可以)躲避祸患,然而 却有人不采用它。 是故所欲有甚于生者,所恶有甚于死者。 所以(人们)所喜爱的东西有比生命更(重要的), (人们)厌恶的事情有比死亡更厉害的。 非独贤者有是心也,人皆有之,贤者能勿丧耳。 不仅仅贤德的人有这种思想,人人都有这种思想,( 只不过)贤德的人能够(坚守这种品德)使它不致丧 失罢了。 通假字 万钟则不辩礼义而受之 所识穷乏者得我与 辩通辨,辨别 得通德,感激 返回 1、王之蔽甚矣 2、如使人之所欲莫甚于生 3、言之貌若甚戚者 4、生之者甚少而糜之者甚多 5、渔人甚异之 厉害、严重 厉害、严重、超过 十分、很 十分、很 十分、很 本文论证的中心是什么?怎样提 出来的? 所欲→鱼、熊掌 加油呦! →取熊掌 生,亦我所欲也,义,亦我所欲也 ;二者不可得兼,舍生而取义者也。 设喻 : 引出:→舍生取义 生、义 论点 : 论点: 舍 生 取 义 鱼 熊掌 生 义 设喻论证 (类比论证) 舍 取 舍 取 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 第一层(从开头至“舍生而取义者也”) 以鱼与熊掌不可得兼而取熊掌为喻,引 出生与义不可得兼则“舍生取义”的论点 。 第二层(从“生亦我所欲”至“是故所欲有 甚于生者,所恶有甚于死者。”) 对自己的论点“舍生取义”是人的“本心” 的进一步论证。先正面再反面分析阐发 自己的观点。 分析第一部分 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 第三层(本段最后一句)作者得出结论:其实人都 有向善之心,之所以贤者才能做到“舍生取义”是因 为贤者能够保持“本心”而已。 道 理 论 证 推理 故 如使……则…… 使……则…… 因果论证 假设论证 对比论证 义 重 于 生 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 第二部分:举例论证论点,人应该保有“ 本心”。 第一层(从“一箪食”至“乞人不屑也”) 从正面举例论证不能见 利忘义。“一箪 食”、“一豆羹”关系到人的生死,但若用 无礼的方式施舍,就是路人、乞丐也不 接受。这一事例充分证明,最普通的人 也有羞恶之心,宁愿饿死而不失义。 分析第二部分 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 第二层(从“万钟则不辨礼义而受之”至“是 亦不可以已乎”)从反面举例论证不能见利 忘义。 首先指出一些显贵的人“不辨礼义”就接 受优厚俸禄。紧接着以一个反问句,说明 他们接受的原因是利欲熏心,为私利所蔽 。然后用三个排比今昔对比,批判他们重 利轻义、见利忘义的行为。“是亦不可以已 乎”是一句反问,更增加了批判的力量。 第三层(最后一句)与第一部分结束相呼 应,人应该保有本心。 “本心”就是人原来 固有的“羞恶之心”,也就是“义”、“善”的 本性。 义存于心 举 例 论 证 见利忘义 (正) (反) 对 比 论 证 嗟来之食 1、行道之人 2、乞人 万钟之禄 1、宫室之美 2、妻妾之奉 3、所识穷乏 者得我 排 比 论 证 文章主要运用了哪些修辞方法? :通篇皆是。既有助于逐层深入分析,又能增强 文章的气势和论辩力量。 : “舍鱼而取熊掌”是一个巧妙而贴切的比喻,它 恰当地说明了在人们所喜爱的两件事物不能同时兼得 的情况下,就必须择优而取。“一箪食,一豆羹”也是 比喻,说明饮食对饥饿者虽然重要,但不合乎礼义也 宁死不食,从而证明了“义”重于“生”,突出了主题。 比喻 :生和义比,义比生更可贵;死与不义比,不义 比死更可恶。又用假设方式与事实作对比,赞扬了舍 生取义的人。最后用“不食嗟来之食”与“不辩礼义而受 万钟”作对比,赞扬了舍生取义的精神,批判了那些 只贪图荣华富贵而不顾礼义廉耻的权贵们。这就起到
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