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非金属及其化合物(必修一_第四章 氧族元素)课件

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非金属及其化合物 非金属及其化合物必修1 非金属元素及其化合物 氧族元素及其化合物
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The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 第三节 氧族元素 第四章 非金属及其化合物 n行走在生命边缘的印尼采硫人 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 从示意图可看出: 氧族元素最外层只有6个电子,很容易得到两个 电子而形成离子,亦表现为典型的非金属性。 得到2个电子 如: 硫元素的主要价态: -2 0 +4 +6 H2SS SO3、H2SO4SO2、H2SO3 还原性 氧化性 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 一、硫单质 1.物理性质 俗称硫黄,是一种淡黄色的固体(黄色晶体), 不溶于水,微溶于酒精,易溶于CS2。 自然硫黄 硫粉 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 2.存在形式 ①游离态:火山喷口附近或地壳的岩石里 长白山硫磺泉 温泉煮蛋 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. ②化合态:主要以硫化物和硫酸盐的形式存在 硫铁矿(FeS2)、黄铜矿(CuFeS2)、石膏(CaSO4•2H2O) 和芒硝(Na2SO4•10H2O)等 如硫化氢(H2S)、二氧化硫(SO2)、三氧化硫(SO3)、 硫铁矿(FeS2) 黄铜矿(CuFeS2) 石膏(CaSO4·2H2O) 芒硝 (Na2SO4·10H2O) The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. ⑶与热、浓的NaOH溶液的歧化反应 3S+6NaOH(浓)==2Na2S+Na2SO3+3H2O △ 思考:粘有硫磺的试管应如何清洗? 答案:热的NaOH或CS2 ⑷与热、浓H2SO4的归中反应 S+2H2SO4(浓)== 3SO2↑+2H2O △ The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 二、硫化氢的性质 1.物理性质 化学式:H2S,一种无色有臭鸡蛋气味的有毒气体, 密度比空气大,微溶液于水(1﹕﹕2.6),其水溶液称为 氢硫酸。 2.实验室制备 ①原理FeS+2HCl(稀)==FeCl2+H2S↑ ②除杂 ③收集方法 ④验满 饱和NaHS溶液 向上排空气法 方法:用湿润的醋酸铅试试纸 现象:试纸变黑 化学方程式:H2S+Pb(CH3COO)2==PbS↓+2CH3COOH The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 3.化学性质 ⑴弱酸性 ①能使石蕊溶液变红 ②能与NaOH溶液反应 H2S+2NaOH==Na2S+2H2O ⑵还原性 ①在氧气中燃烧 ②与Na2SO3溶液反应 2H2S+3O2===2SO2+2H2O 点燃 3H2S+Na2SO3==Na2S+ 3S↓ +3H2O ③与SO2溶液反应2H2S+SO2==3S↓+2H2O ④与氯水反应 H2S+Cl2==S↓+2HCl The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 三、二氧化硫 1.物理性质 无色、有刺激性气味的有毒气体,密度比空气的大, 容易液化,易溶于水(1﹕﹕40)。 2.实验制备 ①原理 ②收集方法 ③验满 Na2SO3+H2SO4(浓)==Na2SO4+SO2↑+H2O 向上排空气法 用湿润的蓝色石蕊试纸 ④尾气处理 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 3.化学性质 ⑴酸性氧化物的通性 ①与水的反应SO2+H2O H2SO3 ②与NaOH溶液的反应 注意:亚硫酸(H2SO3)具有弱酸性,但酸性比醋酸强 a.与少量NaOH溶液反应 b.与过量NaOH溶液反应 SO2+NaOH==NaHSO3 SO2+2NaOH==Na2SO3+H2O 可逆反应:在同一条件下,既能向正反应方向进行,又 能向逆反应方向进行的反应,且反应物与生成物共存。 实验视频: 二氧化硫与水反应 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 练习: 1.下列反应是否为可逆反应? ⑴ CO2+H2O === H2CO3 H2CO3===H2O+CO2↑ ⑵ 2H2+O2 === 2H2O 2H2O === 2H2↑+O2↑ 点燃 通电 不是可逆反应 是可逆反应 2.向澄清石灰水中通入SO2气体至过量,现象是什么? 先产生白色沉淀,后沉淀溶解 Ca(OH)2+SO2==CaSO3↓+H2O CaSO3+SO2+H2O==Ca(HSO3)2 现象: 化学方程式: The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. ③与碱性氧化物的反应 SO2+CaO==CaSO3 + 应应用:燃煤烟气中含有SO2为为了减少它的污污染排放 ,我们们通常在燃煤中添加一定量的生石灰。 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. ⑵较强的还原性(主要、重点) ①与氧气的反应2SO2+O2 2SO3 △ 催化剂 思考题: 5.若向装置A加入12.6 gNa2SO3固体,再滴加过量的 浓硫酸,在装置D得到0.07mol沉淀,问SO2的转化率? 干燥SO2和O2气体并使两者混合均匀的同时,通过 观察气泡的数目以达到控制两者反应的比例和快慢。 1.装置B的作用是什么?2.氧气的作用是什么?3.装置D的收集到物质的颜色和状态是什么? 说明什么? 4.装置E的作用是什么 ?离子反应方程式? 起到氧化的作用,并将残留在装置中气体全部 赶到装置D、E中 无色晶体,说明SO3的熔点低 装置E用来吸收未参与反应的SO2 3SO2+3Ba2++2NO3-+2H2O==3BaSO4↓+2NO↑+4H+ 转化率为:70% The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. ②与氯气的反应 SO2+Cl2+2H2O==H2SO4+2HCl 实验现象:浅黄绿色溶液褪色 化学方程式: 注意:SO2的水溶液能被X2(Cl2、Br2、I2)氧化。 练习:如何除去CO2气体中的SO2杂质? a.饱和NaHCO3的溶液 b.酸性KMnO4溶液 NaHCO3+SO2== NaHSO3+CO2 2KMnO4+5SO2+2H2O== K2SO4+2MnSO4+2H2SO4 ③能使酸性高锰酸钾溶液的紫红色褪去 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 例如:与H2S气体或溶液、Na2S溶液反应 现象: 化学方程式: 产生淡黄色沉淀 SO2+2H2S==3S↓ +2H2O 3SO2+2Na2S==3S↓ +2Na2SO3 ⑷漂白性 实验视频:二氧化硫的漂白性 原理:由于SO2能与某些有色物质生成不稳定的无色 物质,这种无色物质容易分解而使有色物质恢 复原来的颜色。 ⑶弱的氧化性 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 在田间大棚里加工白银耳 (用硫熏蒸的银耳) 中央电视台《生活》栏目曝光 特别要注意:SO2能使品红溶液褪色, 但只能使石蕊溶液变红而不能褪色 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 漂白 剂 SO2HClO( 氯氯水) Na2O2漂白粉活性炭 漂白 原理 实质 品红 溶液 石蕊 溶液 稳定 性 与色素结合 成不稳定的 无色物质 将色素氧化为稳定的 无色物质 将有色物质质 的分子吸附 在其表面 化学变化化学变化 物理吸附 褪色但加热热又 恢复原来红红色 褪色褪色 变红变红 但 不褪色 先变变 红红 后褪色 先变蓝变蓝 后褪色 褪色 褪色 不稳稳定 稳稳定 稳稳定 几种物质的漂白性比较 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. ⑴ ⑵ SO2+2H2S=3S↓+2H2O ⑶ SO2+Cl2+2H2O=2HCl+H2SO4 ⑷ SO2使品红溶液褪色 ⑸ SO2使酸性高锰酸钾溶液褪色 ⑹ SO2使紫色石蕊试液变红色 还原性 [巩固训练] 氧化性 还原性 漂白性 还原性 水溶液呈酸性 1、指出下列反应或现象中,SO2所体现的性质: 2SO2+O2 2SO3 △ 催化剂 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 练习2: SO2和Cl2按物质的量1:1的比例同时 通入品红溶液中,品红是否褪色?为什么? 否,依据SO2+Cl2+H2O==H2SO4+2HCl可知: SO2和Cl2按物质的量1:1的比例混合恰好完全反应。 练习3:在某一地区收集到雨水的PH值随时间的变化表: 时间012345678 PH值5.04.94.84.74.64.54.44.44.4 这一系列数据说明什么? 1.该地区为酸雨(定义:PH5.6的雨水,主要是SO2 和NO2 溶于水形成)区域 2. SO2溶于水得到H2SO3不稳定,易被空气中的O2氧化 2H2SO3+O2==2H2SO4 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 【拓展】 +4价含硫的化合物(SO2、H2SO3、SO32-)主要 表现出强的还原性,在空气不能稳定存在。 思考: 1.Na2SO3固体储存的时候需要注意什么? 2.暴露在空气中Na2SO3固体可能含什么杂质? 3.如何检验亚硫酸钠是否变质? 2.若暴露在空气中易被O2氧化成Na2SO4 1.必须密封保存 3.①取少量固体于烧杯,加少量的蒸馏水使其完全溶解 ②取少量的上述溶液于试管中,加入过量的稀盐酸, 再滴加1-2滴BaCl2溶液,若白色沉淀,证明已变质。 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 练习4: B装置的作用: C装置的作用: D装置的作用: 检验是否存在SO2 除去SO2 检验SO2是否除尽 ABCDE 某混合气体由SO2 CO2 和水蒸气组成,为分别 检验三种气体,使用下列装置: 无水硫酸铜 品红高锰酸钾品红 澄清石灰水 证明存在CO2气体的 实验现象是什么? 现象:D装置中品红溶液不褪色,而E装置中出现白色浑浊 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 四、三氧化硫 1.物理性质 熔点为16.8℃,沸点为44.8℃,在常温下为液态, 在标准状况下为固态 2.化学性质 ⑴与水反应SO3+H2O== H2SO4 ⑵与碱反应SO3+2NaOH== Na2SO4+H2O ⑶与碱性氧化物反应SO3+Na2O== Na2SO4 工业上吸收SO3气体一般采用98.3% 浓硫酸,主要是防止产生大量酸雾 影响其吸收速率。 现象:强烈吸水,在空气中发“烟”,与水剧烈反应 生成H2SO4,同时放出大量热,形成酸雾 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 五、硫酸 1.稀硫酸的化学性质 ⑴能使指示剂变色 ⑵能与活泼金属反应 ⑶能与金属氧化物反应 ⑷能与碱起反应 ⑸能与某些盐起反应 ①能使紫色石蕊试液变红 ②能使甲基橙试液变红 Zn+2H+==Zn2++H2↑ ZnO+2H+==Zn2++H2O Zn(OH)2+2H+==Zn2++2H2O Ba2++SO42+==BaSO4↓ The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 2.浓硫酸 ⑴物理性质 无色、粘稠的油状液体,难挥发,密度比水大, 能与水任意比混溶。 ①稀释浓硫酸的方法: 将浓硫酸沿烧杯内壁缓慢注入水中,并用玻璃 棒不断搅拌。 ②浓硫酸对人体皮肤有强烈的腐蚀作用: 如果不慎在皮肤上沾上少量浓硫酸时,立即用 大量水冲洗,然后涂上3%-5%的NaHCO3溶液 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. ⑵化学性质 ①吸水性 常用作干燥剂,但不能干燥NH3等碱性气体及 H2S、HI等还原性物质 ②脱水性 将有机物中的H、O元素按水的组成比脱去的性质 现象:蔗糖变黑,体积膨胀,变成疏松多孔的海绵状 的炭,并放出有刺激性气味的气体 实验:向蔗糖中加入浓硫酸 化学方程式: C12H22O11 蔗糖 浓硫酸 12C+11H2O 为什么有刺激性气味 的气体产生呢? The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. ③强氧化性 a.常温下,Fe、Al遇浓硫酸发生钝化 原因:它们之间发生化学反应生成一层致密的氧化膜 b.与非金属单质的反应 例如:碳与浓硫酸的化学反应 C+2H2SO4(浓)==CO2↑+2SO2↑+2H2O △ 思考:请写出硫与浓硫酸的反应 S+2H2SO4(浓)==3SO2↑+2H2O △ The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. C.与金属单质的反应 实验视频:铜与浓硫酸的反应 例如:铜与浓硫酸的化学反应 现象:铜片逐渐溶解,并产生大量刺激性气味的气体, 溶液变成蓝色,且气体能使品红溶液褪色 化学方程式: Cu+2H2SO4(浓)==CuSO4+SO2↑+2H2O △ 思考:请写出铁与浓硫酸的反应 2Fe+6H2SO4(浓)==Fe2(SO4)3+3SO2↑+6H2O △ The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 对比两套实验装置? The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. (1)把锌粒放入稀硫酸中时,有气体放出____________ (2)盛有浓硫酸的烧杯敞口放置 一段时间后,质量 增加____________ (3)用玻璃棒蘸浓硫酸滴在纸上时纸变黑____________ (4)把木炭放人热的浓硫酸中时有气体放出___________ (5)在常温可以用铁、铝制容器盛装冷的浓硫酸_______ 把下列现象中硫酸所表现的性质填写在空白处: 酸性 吸水性 脱水性 强氧化性 强氧化性 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 3.用途 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 拓展:稀硫酸与浓硫酸的鉴别 项目浓硫酸稀硫酸 物 理 性 质 加水 状态 密度 放出大量的热无明显现象 黏粘状液体黏粘度较小 用手掂分量,相同 体积时浓硫酸密度 较大,质量大得多 稀硫酸密度较小, 质量较轻 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 项项目浓浓硫酸稀硫酸 化 学 性 质质 铁铁片 铜铜片 (加热热) 白纸纸 胆矾矾 石蕊 试试液 因铁被钝化 无明显现象 产生大量气体 有气泡产生 溶液变蓝 无明显现象 立即变黑无明显现象 蓝色固体变白无明显现象 先变红 然后红色消失 变红色 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 六、SO42-检验 ⑴检验SO42-时要防止其他离子的干扰 ①Ag+干扰 用HCl酸化,能防止Ag+干扰,因为Ag++Cl-== AgCl↓ ②CO32-、SO32-、PO43-干扰 因为BaCO3、 BaSO3 、 Ba3(PO4) 2也是白色沉淀, 但与BaSO4不同的是它们都能溶于强酸,故必须用盐酸 酸化(不能用HNO3、 H2SO4酸化),所以钡盐不能用 Ba(NO3)2溶液。 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. ⑵正确操作: 被检液 加足量 盐酸酸化 取清液 滴加BaCl2溶液 观察现象 ①若无明显现象,证明无SO42-存在 ②若有白色沉淀生成,证明存在SO42-
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本文标题:非金属及其化合物(必修一_第四章 氧族元素)课件
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