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中西饮食文化ppt模版课件

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中西饮食文化 中西方饮食文化 中西饮食文化ppt pptppt
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美 食 天 地 v粥;porridge,congee, rice( 或millet小米) gruel 稀粥 馒头streamed bun; v花卷steamed twisted roll 锅贴lightly fried dumpling 烧饼clay oven rolls sesame seed cake v八宝饭eight-treasure rice pudding v豆浆soy-bean milk v豆腐脑 beancurd jelly v油条deep-fried twisted dough sticks v茶叶蛋 egg boiled with salt is generally spicy vIngredients: preserved food through pickling, salting, drying and smoking, Sichuan pickles have an appealing smell, and are crisp, tender, salty, sour, hot, and sweet. vSeasoning: peppercorns with a fragrant, numbing, almost citrusy flavor. Also common are chili, ginger and other spicy herbs, plants and spices. Broad bean chili paste (豆瓣酱) vCooking techniques : stir frying, steaming and braising, 粤 菜 v包括广州菜、潮州菜和东江菜。 v选料广博,奇而且杂,鸟、鼠蛇、虫皆为佳肴。 v调料独特,常见的有蚝油、 汁、鱼露、珠油、糖醋 、西汁等。 v烹调方法独特,有煲、泡、“局”等。 v代表菜有:三蛇龙虎会、龙虎凤蛇羹、 油包鲜虾仁 、八宝鲜莲八宝盅、蚝油鲜菇、瓦掌山瑞、脆皮乳 猪等。 Classic Cantonese sauces are light and perhaps bland vIngredients: Besides pork, beef, and chicken, Cantonese cuisine incorporates almost all edible meats, including organ meats, chicken feet, duck tongues, snakes, and snails. vMany cooking methods: v steaming, stir-frying, shallow frying, double boiling, braising, and deep- frying Blanched Chinese Broccoli with oyster sauce (蚝油炒芥兰) Cantonese dishes Traditional dishes vSweet and sour pork (咕噜肉) vSteamed spare ribs (paigu) with fermented black beans and chili pepper (豉椒排骨) vStir-fried vegetables with meat (e.g. chicken, duck, pork, beef, or intestines) (青菜炒肉片) vSteamed frog legs on lotus leaf (荷叶蒸田鸡) Roast Suckling Pig vPrawn crackers (蝦饼) vWinter melon soup (冬瓜湯) vSnow fungus soup (银耳湯) vChinese steamed eggs (蒸水蛋) vCongee with century egg (皮蛋 粥) Wonton noodle (云吞面) Pan-fried crispy noodles ( 炒面) Lo mein (捞面) 干烧对虾Dry-Braised Prawn with Ham and Asparagus vLobster with ginger and scallions(姜葱龙虾) White boiled shrimp(白灼虾) vLittle pan rice v(煲仔飯Clay pot cooking). vPork spare ribs over rice (排骨煲仔飯) vSteamed chicken over rice (蒸鸡肉煲仔飯) Dessert Red bean soup (紅豆沙 Black sesame soup (芝 麻糊) Mung bean soup (綠豆沙 ) Shaved Ice (刨冰) Steamed egg custard (燉 蛋) 浙,扬 vingredients : carefully selected tea leaves, bamboo shoots, mushrooms, pears, and dates. vcooking methods : stewing, braising, quick- frying, warming-up, stir-frying, vCondiments: wine sauce pickling and adding some sugar vmelon carving technique is especially well known. Typical courses v金陵咸水鸭Jinling salted dried duck (Nanjing's most famous dish), v松鼠桂鱼Sweet and Sour Squirrel-shaped Mandarin Fish v霸王别姬Farewell My Concubine (soft- shelled turtle stewed with many other ingredients such as chicken, mushrooms and wine). 龙井虾仁Stir-fried Shelled Shrimp with Longjing Tea Leaves vWest Lake Fish in Vinegar Gravy 西湖醋鱼 vbeggar’s chicken v叫花鸡 v南淡北咸 the light southern cuisine, and the salty northern cuisine 东甜西辣the sweet eastern cuisine, and the spicy western cuisine blending of seasonings 佐料搭配 condiment ['kɔndimənt]n. 调味品 vSpring onion, sugar, salt, soy sauce, rice wine, corn starch, vinegar, sesame oil, and other oils suffice to enhance flavor in most Cantonese cooking. vGinger, chili peppers, five-spice powder, powdered white pepper, star anise大茴香 and a few other spices are used, but often sparingly. Rules for interpreting menu v菜 v品 v口 v译 v秘 v籍 (一)、刀工slicing techniques v切、削(cutting),切片(slicing),切丝(shredding),切碎 (mincing),切丁(dicing),切柳(filleting), 切条cutting to strips,切碎mincing 磨碎grinding v去骨(boning),去皮(skinning/peeling),刮鳞(scaling),剁 末(mashing),刻、雕(carving)等。 v经过加工后的原料具有丁、条、丝、片、块等几何形状,如 肉丝(pork shreds),鸡块(chicken slices)等。 v其他的加工方法还有酿(stuffing),腌 (picking/salting),浸\泡(marinating),去壳 (shelling),刨丝(grating)等。 vtiming火候:大火strong heat 中火medium heat 微火gentle heat (二)、烹调方法cooking methods 至少有50种,归纳出以下主要常用的11种: v1. 炒(stir-frying),2. 煎(pan-frying),如煎鸡蛋(pan- fried egg)。 v3. 爆(quick-frying),如爆大虾(quick-fried shrimps) 。 v4. 炸(deep-frying), 如五香炸鸡翅(deep-fried chicken wing with spicy flavour)。 v如再细分,还可分为干炸(dry deep-frying),软炸 (soft deep-frying)和酥炸(crisp deep-frying)。 v5. 烧(braising),“用酱油来烧,叫红烧—— braising with soy sauce,” braising in brown sauce 。 v6. 煮(boiling), “煮还可分速煮(instant boiling ),北方的涮羊肉instant boiled mutton,广东的‘打 边炉’chafing dish也属此类,和快煮(quick boiling )。” v7. 蒸(steaming),如荷叶粉蒸肉(steamed flour -coated pork wrapped in lotus leaves)。 v8. 煲/炖/煨/焖/卤(simmering/stewing), 这五种烹调方法基本相同,如炖栗子鸡( stewed chicken with chestnuts),煨牛肉( simmered beef)。 v隔水炖是stewing out of water,用于炖补品 。 v倘若放进味汁里煮,那就是‘卤’-—stewing in gravy 了。 v9. 熏(smoking),用调料香料调制后,用特殊的树木柴禾 熏烤而熟,。如熏山鸡(smoked pheasant)。 v10. “烘烤铁烧:铁烧(broiling或grilling)是将食物放在铁板 或铁架上用明火烤。铁烧牛扒(grilled beefsteak),。 v 烧烤(roasting)是在火上,火前或在铁架上烧。 烧乳猪(roast suckling pig) 烘(baking)指将食物放在密闭的烘炉里烤。 浇油烧(basting)是指在食物烧烤过程中不时浇淋调味油, 以防烤焦。 奶油烧鱼柳(grilled fish with butter sauce), 11. 白灼(scalding或blanching,如白灼海螺片(scalded sliced conch)。 1.以烹调方法开头的翻译方法 v(1)烹调法+主料(形状) v炒鳝片 Stir-fried Eel Slices v煨牛肉 Simmered Beef v清蒸鳊鱼 Steamed Limande v(2)烹调法+主料(形状)+(with)辅料 v蟹粉蒸鱼肚 Stewed Fish Tripe with Crab Meat v腐乳汁烧肉 Braised Pork with Preserved Bean Curd v辣子炒肉丁 Stir-fried Diced Pork with Green Pepper v(3)烹调法+主料(形状)+(with,in)调料 v红烧鲤鱼头 Braised Carp Head with Soy Sauce v辣味烩虾球 Braised Prawn Balls With Chilli/Chili Sauce v清炖猪蹄 Stewed Pig Hoof in Clean Soup 2.以主料开头的的翻译方法 v有些菜肴名称不反应烹调方法,只需译出其主料,再用介词 with或in接其辅料或调料。示例如下: v(1) 主料(形状)+(with)辅料 v杏仁鸡丁 Chicken Cubes with Almond v牛肉豆腐 Beef with Beancurd v鸡丝凉面 Cold Noodles with Chicken Shreds[10](P166 ) v(2) 主料(形状)+(with,in)调料 v糖醋鱼 Fish with Sweet and Sour Sauce v椒盐排骨 Spare Ribs with Pepper and Salt[11](P57) v米酒鱼卷 Fish Rolls with Rice Wine meat vchicken, fish vpork, beef, mutton vVeal,lamb小羊肉, 3.以原料形状或口感开头的翻译方法 v (1) 口感+烹法+主料 v水煮嫩鱼 Tender Stewed Fish v香煎鸡块 Fragrant Fried Chicken v酥炸芋球 Crisp Deep-fried Taro Ball v(2) 形状(口感)+主料+(with)辅料 v陈皮兔丁 Diced Rabbit with Orange Peel v时蔬鸡片 Sliced Chicken with Seasonal Vegetables v冬笋牛肉丝 Fried Beef Shreds with Bamboo Shoots v(3) 形状(口感)+主料+(with) 调料 v茄汁鱼片 Sliced Fish with Tomato Sauce v黄酒脆皮虾仁 Crisp Shrimps with Rice Wine Sauce v糖醋咕咾肉 Fried Pork Slices with Sweet and Sour Sauce (二)、直译+音译法 v对于一些有地方特色的名菜,应采用原料+地名 +Style的方法。如湖南肉Pork Hunan Style,麻婆 豆腐Bean Curd Sichuan Style等。 v用“音译地名/人名+直译原料”这种译法可能更有“中 国味儿”。如: v东坡肉 Dongpo Braised Pork v宋嫂鱼羹 Songsao Fish Potage v北京烤鸭 Beijing Roast Duck
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