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【人类遗传病课件】基因突变、基因重组与染色体变异

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人类遗传病课件 基因突变和基因重组 基因重组 和染色 染色体变异和人类遗传病课件 变异课件ppt 基因重组和基因突变 人类遗传病 基因遗传病、 基因遗传病和染色体 】 基因突变 基因重组和染色体变异
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Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong 基因突变 基因重组 染色体变异 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 可遗传的变异可遗传的变异 表现型表现型基因型基因型环境条件环境条件 不遗传的变异不遗传的变异 基因突变基因突变 基因重组基因重组 染色体变异染色体变异 (改变)(改变) (改变) 来源 诱因 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong 基因突变的概念: DNA分子中发生碱基对的 替换、增添或缺失,而引 起的基因结构的改变,叫 基因突变。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong 缬氨酸—组氨酸—亮氨酸—苏氨酸—脯氨酸—缬氨酸—谷 氨酸——赖氨酸······异常 基因突变的实例:镰刀型细胞贫血症 缬氨酸—组氨酸—亮氨酸—苏氨酸—脯氨酸—谷氨酸—谷 氨酸——赖氨酸······正常 血红蛋白分子的部分氨基酸顺序 正常异常 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong 蛋白质 正常异常 氨基酸谷氨酸 缬氨酸 mRNA G AG A DNA C T T G A A C T G A AU A T 突变 ① ② ② 直接原因 根本原因 碱基的替换可导致基因的改变,从而引起所编 码的蛋白质的改变。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong G A T G T G T T C C C C T A C A C A A G G G G A U G U G U U C C C MetCysSer DNA片段 mRNA 蛋白质 未突变 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong G A T G T T T C C C C T A C A A A G G G G A U G U U U C C C MetPhePro 缺失突变 G C Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong G A T G T G T T C C C C T A C A C A A G G G Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong G A T G T G T T C C C C T A C A C A A G G G G A U G U G G U U C C C MetTrpPhe 插入突变 G C Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong 细胞分裂间期DNA分子复制过 程中,由于外界环境或生物体内内 部因素作用下,使DNA分子复制发 生差错,即DNA分子中脱氧核苷酸 (碱基)的种类、数量和排列顺序 发生改变,从而引起基因结构的改 变,遗传信息的改变。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong 基因突变的结果: AAaA 一个基因突变后产生的是它的等位基因 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong 基因突变的原因: 诱因 物理因素: 化学因素: 生物因素: 如X射线、激光等 亚硝酸、硫酸二乙酯、 二口恶口英、秋水仙素等 病毒、细菌等 在没有这些外来因素影响时,基因突变也会由 于DNA分子复制偶尔发生错误,DNA的碱基组 成发生改变等原因发生自发改变。 外因 内因 相互作用 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong 1、基因突变在自然界是普遍存在的 2、基因突变是随机发生的、不定向的 3、在自然状态下,基因突变的频率是很低 的。 4、多数是有害的,但不是绝对的,有利还 是有害取决于生物变异的性状 是否适应环境 基因突变的特点 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong 基因突变的主要意义: 它是新基因产生的途径, 是生物变异的根本来源, 为生物进化提供了最初的 原材料。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 诱变育种 (1)原理: (2)方法: (3)举例 : (4)特点 : (5)说明: 基因突变 用物理因素或化学因素来处理生物 青霉素高产菌株的获得 提高了突变率,创造人类需要的变异 类型,从中选择培育出优良的生物品 种,但由于突变的不定向性,因此该 种育种方法具有盲目性 该种方法常用于微生物育种、农作物 诱变育种等 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong 概念:基因分子结构的改变,包括碱基对的增添、缺失或其他改变 实例:镰刀型细胞贫血症 症状:红细胞呈镰刀型,容易破裂,产生 溶血性贫血 病因:控制合成血红蛋白的DNA分子碱基 序列发生了改变 诱因: 物理因素:如X射线、激光等 化学因素:亚硝酸、硫酸二乙酯、秋水仙素等 生物因素:病毒、细菌等 特点: 普遍性、随机性、低频性、有害多有利少性、不定向性 育种上的应用 意义: 变异的根本来源,生物进化的原材料 方法:人工诱变 物理法、化学法 特点: 优点:大幅度改良生物性状 缺点:育种的工作量大 基 因 突 变 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong 诱变育种的特点是 ①能大幅度改良某些性状 ②能形成新基因 ③大多形成新物种 ④一般对个体生存有利 A.①② B.①③ c.②③ D.②④ 诱变育种所依据的遗传学原理是 A.基因自由组合 B.基因突变 C.染色体变异 D.染色体交叉互换 A B Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong 基因重组 概概 念念 是指生物体在进行有性生殖的过程中, 控制不同性状的基因重新组合的过程 u在生物体通过减数分裂形成配子时,随着非同源染色体的自 由组合,非等位基因也自由组合; u发生在减数分裂形成四分体时期,位于同源染色体上的等位 基因有时会随着非姐妹染色单体的交换而发生交换,导致染色 单体上的基因重组。 实例实例 猫由于基因重组产生毛色变异、一母生9子, 个个皆不同、除了两个双胞胎,没有两个同 胞兄弟姊妹在遗传上完全相同。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 染色体是遗传物质的载体,染色体 的变化必然会导致生物的性状发生相应 的改变。 染色体变异可分为染色体结构变异 和染色体数目变异两种类型。 染色体变异 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong 染色体结构的变异 • 由于染色体的断裂及之后的片段不正 常的重新连接引起的。 • 包括:缺失、重复、倒位、易位 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * Copyright© Jiangyong 1、缺失:染色体的某一片段消失 a b c d e c a b d e 消 失 在人类遗传中,五号 染色体短臂缺失导致猫叫 综合症 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 2、重复:染色体增加了某一片段 ab c d e cc ab c c d e 重 复 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 3、倒位:染色体的某一片段颠倒了180° 颠 倒 断 裂 连 接 a b c d e a b c d e c b a c b d e Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 4、易位:染色体的某一片段位置改变 移 接 a b c d e b c d e a 1 2 3 a 1 2 3 慢性骨髓性白血病 22号染色体的一部分易位到第14号 染色体上。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 雌果蝇雄果蝇 染色体数目的变异 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 染色体组的概念: 生物经过减数分裂,产生的配子中所具有的 全部染色体,叫做染色体组 都是非同源染色体,形态、功能各不相同。 却携带着控制生物生长发育的全部遗传信息 二倍体:体细胞中含有两个染色体组的生物 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 配子配子 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 该生物的一个染色体组 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 染色体数目的变异: 指细胞内染色体数目增添或缺失 非整倍性变异 如:AABB→AAB或AABBC 整倍性变异 如:AABB→AB或AAAABBBB Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 1、非整倍性变异(P46) 动物的非整倍性变异往往是致死的, 植物的非整倍性变异产生的影响相对较小 指在正常的染色体组中,丢失或添加了一条 或几条完整的染色体。与减数分裂有何关系? (如21三体综合征) Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 2、整倍性变异 指染色体以染色体组为单位成倍地增加或减少。 (1)一倍性变异和单倍性变异 一倍性变异:指体细胞只含有一个染色体组的变 异,由此产生的个体称为一倍体。 单倍性变异:指体细胞含有的染色体数等于配子 染色体数的变异,由此产生的个体 称为单倍体。(如蜜蜂中的雄蜂) 一倍性变异和单倍性变异的关系(P46) Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 一倍体单倍体 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 一倍体单倍体 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 由配于不经两性生殖细胞的融 合直接发育而成的个体(无论其体 细胞会有多少个染色体组) 单倍体的实质 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 二倍体三倍体四倍体 多倍体 (2)多倍性变异 由合子发育而成的个体,其体细胞中含有几个染 色体组,即称为几倍体,当染色体组数超过两个以上时 称为多倍体。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * AAB AaAaBb AAaAAaBBb AAaaAAaaBBbb AAAaaaAAAaaaBBBbbb 下面各种基因型的个体分别属于几倍体? Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 一倍体:体细胞中有一个染色体组的个体 二倍体:由受精卵发育而成的,体细胞中有 两个染色体组的个体 多倍体:体细胞中有三个或三个以上染色体 组的个体 单倍体:配子不经两性生殖细胞的融合,直接 发育而成的个体(无论其体细胞有多 少个染色体组) Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 染色体变异在育种上的应用 单倍体育种的方法花药的离体培养 单 倍 体 育 种 A a B b Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. * Jiangyong * 单倍体育种的优点 明显缩短育种年限。获得的种 都是纯合的,自交后产生的后代 性状不会发生分离。 基本步骤: 第一年工作:杂交。即将需要的一些优良性状通过杂交组合 到同一株植物体上 第二年工作:先用花药离体培养得到单倍体,然后用秋水仙 素处理单倍体幼苗,使染色体数目加倍,得到可育的纯合体 花药离体培养的技术为——植物组织培养 依据的原理为——细胞的全能性 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators
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