• / 53
  • 下载费用:25 金币  

【人类遗传病课件】人类遗传病概述(53p)

关 键 词:
人类遗传病课件 【人类遗传病课件】人类遗传病概述53p
资源描述:
Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 我国遗传病的发病状况 我国人口中有1/5到1/4的人患有危害轻重不同的 遗传病! 每年新出生的儿童中,有先天性缺陷的约1.3%, 其中70%以上是遗传因素所致。 在自然流产儿中,约50%是染色体异常引起的! 我国人口中患21三体综合症的人就在100万以上 。 15岁以下死亡的儿童中,40%为各种遗传病所致 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 遗传病对人类的危害 • 危害人类健康,降低人口素质;给患 者本人、家庭和社会带来严重的经济负担 和精神负担;某些精神病患者给社会治安 带来危害。 一个病残儿平均寿命为一个病残儿平均寿命为5050年,年,5050年国家和家庭需为孩子年国家和家庭需为孩子 承担承担4040万人民币的基本生活费用万人民币的基本生活费用 每年出生每年出生:120:120万人万人*40*40万元万元=4800=4800亿元亿元 经济经济 负担负担 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 环境污染是导致遗传病发病率上升的主要原因。 放射性污染化学污染 遗传病因 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 遗传病:是指因遗传物质改变引起的人类遗传病. 遗传病 单基因遗传病(6500种) 多基因遗传病(100多种) 染色体异常遗传病(100多种) 一、人类遗传病概述 基因遗传病 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 单基因遗传病:受一对等位基因控制的遗传病 X染色体显性遗传病:抗维生素D佝偻病等 常染色体显性遗传病:如多指、并指、软骨发育不全等 Y染色体显性遗传病:男性外耳道多毛症 常染色体上隐性遗传病:白化病、苯丙酮尿症、囊性纤 维病、镰刀型细胞贫血症、先天性聋哑、尿黑酸等 X染色体上隐性遗传病:红绿色盲、血友病、进行性肌 营养不良等 单基因遗传病符合遗传定律 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 多基因遗传病:由多对等位基因控制。 常表现出家族性聚集现象,且比 较容易受环境影响。 唇裂 无脑儿 冠心病、精神分裂、 哮喘 原发性高血压 青少年型糖尿病。 特 点 (多对基因+环境) 表现出家族聚集现象 群体中发病率高 遗传病是遗传因素(内因)环境因素(外因)相互作用的结果。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 多基因遗传病多基因遗传病 人类许多生理特征如身高、体重、血压 和肤色深浅,毛发疏密等,是受多项基因决 定的。多基因遗传病是由两对以上微效基因 共同作用造成的,无显性和隐性之分。每对 基因作用较小,但有积累效应。 家族聚集现象和在发病时还常受环境因 素的影响,故也称多因子遗传。这类疾病中 遗传因素所起的作用程度不同,按其程度大 小以百分率(%)来表示,称为遗传度。环 境因素影响越大,遗传度越低。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 染色体异常遗传病:由染色体发生异常而 引起的遗传病称为染色体异常遗传病。 常染色体 性染色体 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 人类染色体遗传病 常染色体遗传病 性染色体遗传病 常染色体数目异常 常染色体结构异常 21三体综合症 性染色体数目的增加 性染色体数目的减少 XXY XYY XO 性腺发育不 全综合征 XYY综合征 先天性睾丸发 育不全综合征 孕妇早期自发流产的主要原因与胚胎细 胞中染色体异常有关 猫叫综合症 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 单基因遗传病 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 多指、并指:发生者的突变基因位于2号 染色体长臂上,患者除手指畸形外,其他 情况与正常人相同。 常染色体显性遗传病 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 软骨发育不全 • 软骨发育不全 一种常染色体上显性遗传病( 显性致病基因A引起的)。这种病 的患者表现出异常的体态:四肢 短小畸形,上臂和大腿表现得尤 为明显; 腰椎过度前凸;腹部明 显隆起;臀部后凸;患者身材短 小。据研究,软骨发育不全是由 致病基因A导致长骨端部软骨细胞 的形成出现障碍而引起的一种侏 儒症。这种病的纯合子患者的病 情严重,大多数死于胎儿期或新 生儿期。 常染色体显性遗传病 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 常染色体显性遗传病 遗传特点: 通常在家族中表现为代代相传 家族中男女发病概率基本相等 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 抗维生素D佝偻病 • 是由患者对磷、 钙吸收不良而导 致骨发育障碍。 单基因:X染色体显性遗传病 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. X染色体显性遗传病 遗传特点: 通常在家族中表现为代代相传 女性患者多于男性患者 男性患者的母亲和女儿均为患者 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 男人毛耳 单基因:Y染色体遗传病 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. Y染色体遗传病 遗传特点: 传男不传女, 父病儿必病 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 白化病 单基因:常染色体隐性遗传病 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 单基因:常染色体隐性遗传病 镰刀型细胞贫血症 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 常染色体隐性遗传病 遗传特点: 通常在家族中表现为隔代遗传 家族中男女发病概率基本相等 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 进行性肌营养不良(假肥大型)进行性肌营养不良(假肥大型) • 患儿由于肌肉萎缩、 无力而导致行走困难 ,患病后期双侧腓肠 肌呈假性肥大,患儿 多于4-5岁发病,20岁 以前死亡。 X染色体隐性遗传病 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 进行性肌营养不良 患儿由于肌肉萎缩、无力而导致行走困 难。患儿多于4~5岁发病,20岁以前死亡。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 遗传特点: 往往表现为隔代遗 传 男性患者多于女性 患者 女性患者的父亲与 儿子均为患者 X染色体隐性遗传病 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 多基因遗传病, Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 染色体异常 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 人类染色体异常人类染色体异常 新生儿中21三体综合征的发 病率约为1/800,但男性患儿多 于女性。母亲年龄是影响发病率 的重要因素。根据国外资料,如 果一般人出生时的母亲年龄平均 28.2岁,则本病患儿母亲平均年 龄为34.4岁,如母龄20岁后为1: 2000,35岁后为1:300,40岁后 为1:100,45岁后升至1:50。 13三体综合征 18三体综合征 8号三体综合征 22号三体综合征 先天愚型先天愚型 先天性愚型 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 性腺发育不良 (特纳氏综合症) • 患者缺少了一条X染色体 。 • 患者身体比较矮小, 肘常外翻,颈部皮肤松 弛为蹼颈。外观虽然表 现为女性,但是性腺发 育不良,乳房不发育, 因而没有生育能力。 性腺发育不良 性染色体异常 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 请大家指出下列遗传病各属于何种类型? (1)苯丙酮尿症 A.常显 (2)21三体综合征 B.常隐 (3)抗维生素D佝偻病 C.X显 (4)软骨发育不全 D.X隐 (5)进行性肌营养不良 E.多基因遗传病 (6)青少年型糖尿病 F.常染色体病 (7)性腺发育不良 G.性染色体病 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 二、优生 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 姑做婆,最贴心;姨做婆, 亲上亲;亲上加亲才放心 学习了高中的遗传学知识,我们会了什么? 树立正确的遗传观和优生观 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 三、优生的概念 • 运用遗传学原理改善 人类的遗传素质。让每 个家庭生育出健康的孩 子。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 四、优生的措施 • 1、禁止近亲结婚 • 2、遗传咨询: • 3、提倡“适龄生育” • 4、产前诊断 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 1 1 禁止近亲结婚禁止近亲结婚 禁止近亲结婚:我国婚姻法规定 “直系血亲和三代以内的旁系血亲禁止结 婚”。 (1)所谓直系血亲就是指从自己算起, 向上和向下推数三代,如父母、祖父母、 外祖父母、子女、孙子女(外孙子女) (2)所谓三代以内的旁系血亲就是指与 祖父母、外祖父母同源而生的、除直系亲 属外的其他亲属,如同胞兄妹、堂兄妹、 表兄妹、叔(姑)侄、姨(舅)甥等 。 • Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 祖父母 叔、伯、姑 父母 叔伯姑的子女 叔伯姑的(外)孙子女 叔伯姑的曾(外)孙子女 自己 子女 (外)孙子女 兄弟姐妹 兄弟姐妹的子女 兄弟姐妹的(外)孙子女 外祖父母 舅、姨的子女 舅、姨 舅、姨的(外 )孙子女 舅、姨的曾( 外)孙子女 禁止近亲结婚 我国的婚姻法规定:“直系血亲和三代以内的旁系血亲禁止结婚。” Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. • 科学推算,每个人都带有5-6个不同的隐 性致病基因。在随机结婚的情况下,双双带有 相同的致病基因的机会很少, 我国为什么要禁止近亲结婚呢? 但是在近亲 结婚时,双方从 同一个祖先那里 得到同种致病基 因的可能性就大 大增加。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 近亲婚配与隐性遗传病的发病率近亲婚配与隐性遗传病的发病率 疾病名称 隐性遗传病患儿的出生危险率 表兄妹结婚和随机婚 配的相对风险 随机婚配表兄妹婚配 先天性聋哑1:11,8001:1,500 7.8倍 苯丙酮尿症1:14,5001:1,700 8.5倍 着色性干皮病1:23,0001:2,20010.5倍 小口氏病1:32,0001:2,60012.2倍 全身白化病1:40,0001:3,60013.5倍 全色盲1:73,0001:4,10017.9倍 小头症1:77,0001:4,20018.3倍 Wilson氏病1:87,0001:4,50019.4倍 无过氧化氢酶血症1:160,0001:6,20026.0倍 黑蒙性痴呆1:310,0001:8,60035.7倍 先天性鱼鳞症1:1,000,0001:16,00063.5倍 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 例一 、中国某大学一位教授,其妻是电气工程 师。二人的智商都很高,超过130。他们才华 出众,身体健康,下一代的孕育环境和教育条 件优良。他们婚后生了一个女儿和两个儿子。 遗憾的是,他(她)们全部是重的先天痴呆性 患者:究其原因,仅仅是因为夫妻为俩姨表兄 妹 实例1: Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and
展开阅读全文
  麦档网所有资源均是用户自行上传分享,仅供网友学习交流,未经上传用户书面授权,请勿作他用。
0条评论

还可以输入200字符

暂无评论,赶快抢占沙发吧。

关于本文
本文标题:【人类遗传病课件】人类遗传病概述(53p)
链接地址:https://www.maidoc.com/p-15676331.html
关于我们 - 网站声明 - 网站地图 - 资源地图 - 友情链接 - 网站客服 - 联系我们

[email protected] 2018-2020 maidoc.com版权所有  文库上传用户QQ群:3303921 

麦档网为“文档C2C模式”,即用户上传的文档所得金币直接给(下载)用户,本站只是中间服务平台,本站所有文档下载所得的金币归上传人(含作者)所有。
备案号:蜀ICP备17040478号-3  
川公网安备:51019002001290号 


收起
展开