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高二物理选修32传感器及其应用(课件)

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高二物理选修3 2传感器的应用 2 传感器的应用 高中物理选修3 传感器的应用 物理选修3-2 高中物理选修 2 传感器的应用课件 2 传感器的 传感器的应用ppt课件 高二物理课件
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Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 第五章 传感器 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 第六章 传感器 1 1--3 3、传感器原理及应用、传感器原理及应用 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 种类繁多的传感器 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 指纹考勤机 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 供应宝马温度 传感器 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 离子感烟器离子感烟器 明火探测器明火探测器 温度传感器温度传感器 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 光电传感器光电传感器 湿度传感器湿度传感器 机油压力传感器机油压力传感器 超声波传感器超声波传感器 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 风速传感器风速传感器色标传感器色标传感器 全自动血压机全自动血压机 自动旋转门自动旋转门 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 电子秤电子秤 电磁流量计电磁流量计 电子测温计电子测温计 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 一、什么是传感器? 传感器是指这样一些元件:它传感器是指这样一些元件:它 能够感受诸如能够感受诸如位移、速度、压力、 温度、湿度、流量、声强、光,化化 学成分等学成分等非电学量非电学量,并能把它们按,并能把它们按 照一定规律转换为电压、电流等照一定规律转换为电压、电流等电电 学量学量 的一种组件,起自动控制作用 。。 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 非电学量 电学量 传传 感感 器器 角度角度 位移位移 速度速度 加速度加速度 压力压力 温度温度 湿度湿度 声强声强 光照强度光照强度 ……………… 电压电压 电流电流 电阻电阻 电容电容 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 二、传感器的种类 物理传感器、化学传感器、生物传感器物理传感器、化学传感器、生物传感器 物理传感器物理传感器:: 利用物质的物理性质和物理效应感知并利用物质的物理性质和物理效应感知并 检测对象信息的传感器。检测对象信息的传感器。 如电容传感器、电感传感器、光电传感器、如电容传感器、电感传感器、光电传感器、 压电传感器等。压电传感器等。其接受的是压力、声波、光其接受的是压力、声波、光 等的物理信息。等的物理信息。 (按感受信息的学科特点不同(按感受信息的学科特点不同 )) Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 化学传感器:化学传感器:是利用化学反应的原理,识 别和检测信息,把 化学物质的成分、浓 度等转换为电信号的传感器。 如气敏传感器、湿敏传感器等,在环境保护火灾报 警、医疗卫生和家用电器方面有广泛应用。 生物传感器:生物传感器:是一种利用生物活性物质选择性的 识别和测定生物化学物质的传感器。 如组织传感器、细胞传感器、酶传感器等。其感受器中含有如组织传感器、细胞传感器、酶传感器等。其感受器中含有 生命物质,代替嗅觉、味觉功能的传感器。生命物质,代替嗅觉、味觉功能的传感器。 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 转换电路 物理信息 化学信息 生物信息 电 信 号 敏感元件 传感器 三、传感器的工作原理 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 传感器: 一般由 敏感元件、转换器件、转换电路 三 部分组成 转换 器件 敏感 元件 转换 电路 非电 物理量 电学量 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 常见传感器及工作原理 1、光敏电阻(光电传感器) Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 利用烟雾对光的散 射来工作的火灾报 警器 光传感器的应用光传感器的应用————火灾报警器火灾报警器 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination ((1 1)光敏电阻的电阻率与光照强度有关。)光敏电阻的电阻率与光照强度有关。 ((2 2))光敏电阻受到光照时电阻会变小光敏电阻受到光照时电阻会变小。硫化镉。硫化镉((CdSCdS)) 是一种半导体材料,无光照时,载流子极少,导电性是一种半导体材料,无光照时,载流子极少,导电性 能不好;光照增强,载流子增多,导电性能变好。能不好;光照增强,载流子增多,导电性能变好。 ((3 3)光敏电阻将)光敏电阻将光学量光学量(光照强度)转化为(光照强度)转化为电学量电学量(( 电阻)。电阻)。 特性: Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 例1、如图所示为光敏电阻自动计数器的示意图, 其中R1为光敏电阻,R2为定值电阻.此光电计数 器的基本工作原理是( ) A.当有光照射R1时,信号处理系统获得高电压 B.当有光照射R1时,信号处理系统获得低电压 C.信号处理系统每获得一次低电压就记数一次 D.信号处理系统每获得一次高电压就记数一次 ACAC Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 2、热敏电阻 热敏电阻能够把热敏电阻能够把 __________这个热学量转换成为这个热学量转换成为 电阻这个电学量电阻这个电学量 温度温度 热敏电阻R-T关系示意图 R T o 热敏电阻的阻值 会随着温度的升 高而_____,具 有负温度系数 特性: 减小 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 例2 有定值电阻、热敏电阻、光敏 电阻三只元件分别接入如图所示电 路中A、B两点后,用黑纸包住元件 置入热水中,观察欧姆表的示数, 下列说法正确的是( ) AB A.置入热水中与不置入热水中相比,欧姆表示数变化较大,这只元 件一定是热敏电阻 B.置入热水中与不置入热水中相比,欧姆表示数不变化,这只元件 一定是定值电阻 C.用黑纸包住与不用黑纸包住元件相比,欧姆表示数变化较大,这 只元件一定是光敏电阻 D.用黑纸包住与不用黑纸包住元件相比,欧姆表示数相同,这只元 件一定是定值电阻 AC Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 例3:如图是一火警报警的一部分电路示 意图。其中R2为用半导体热敏材料制成 的传感器,电流表为值班室的显示器,a 、b之间接报警器。当传感器R2所在处出 现火情时,显示器的电流I、报警器两端 的电压U的变化情况是( ) A. I 变大,U 变大 B. I 变小,U 变小 C. I 变小,U 变大 D. I 变大,U 变小 R1 R2 R3 A a b E r B Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 尝试体验 如图所示,R1、R2为定值电阻,L是小 灯泡,R3为光敏电阻,当照射光强度增大 时,( ) A.电压表的示数增大 B.R2中电流减小 C.小灯泡的功率增大 D.电路的路端电压增大 返回 ABCABC Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 力电传感器主要是利用敏感元件和变阻器把 力学信号(位移、速度、加速度等)转化 为电学信号(电压、电流等)的仪器。力 电传感器广泛地应用于社会生产、现代科 技中,如安装在导弹、飞机、潜艇和宇宙 飞船上的惯性导航系统及ABS防抱死制动 系统等。 3.力电传感器 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 电阻传感器测物体的质量 E P A S B R0 A P A S B R0 V E P A S B R0 V E Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 力传感器的应用力传感器的应用————电子秤电子秤 金属梁 U1 U2 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 例*:某学生为了测量一个物体的质量,找到一个力电转换器,该 转换器的输出电压正比于受压面受到的压力(比例系数为k)如图 所示,测量时先调节输入端的电压,使转换器空载时的输出电压为 0;而后在其受压面上放上物体,即可测得与物体的质量成正比的 输出电压U。 现有下列器材:力电转换器、质量为m0的砝码、电压表、滑动变阻 器、干电池一个、电键及导线若干、待测物体(可置于力电转换器 的受压面上)。请完成对该物体的测量m。 (1)设计一个电路,要求力电转换器的输入电压可调,并且使电 压的调节范围尽可能大,在方框中画出完整的测量电路图。 (2)简要说明测量步骤,求出比例系数k,并测出待测物体的质量 m。 (3)请设想实验中可能会出现的一个问题。 力电转换器 ++ -- 输出输入 受压面 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination (1) 设计电路如图 (2) 测量步骤与结果:①调节滑动变阻器,使转换器的输出电压为 零,②将砝码放在转换器上,记下输出电压U0,③将待测物放在转换器 上,记下输出电压U 由U0=km0g,得k=U0/m0g U=k m g,所以 m=m0U/U0 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 例题(风力测定仪)如图所示为一种测定风作用力的仪器原理图, 图中P为金属球,悬挂在一细长裸金属丝下面,O是悬挂点,R0是保 护电阻,CD是水平放置的光滑电阻丝,与悬挂小球的细金属丝始终 保持良好接触,无风时细金属丝与电阻丝在C点接触,此时电路中 的电流为I,有风时细金属丝将偏转一角度θ(θ与风力大小有关 ),细金属丝与电阻丝在C/点接触,已知风力方向水平向左,OC=h ,CD=L,球的质量为M,电阻丝单位长度的电阻为k,电源内电阻和 细金属丝电阻均不计,金属丝偏转θ角时,电流表的示数为I’,此 时风力大小为F,试写出: ①风力大小F与θ的关系式; ②风力大小F与电流表示数I’ 的关系式 。 ③此装置所测定的最大风力是多少? R0 O P D B θ C A 电 源 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 例题3:(2003上海考题)演示位移传感器的工作原理如右图示, 物体M在导轨上平移时,带动滑动变阻器的金属滑杆p,通过电压 表显示的数据,来反映物体位移的大小x。假设电压表是理想的, 则下列说法正确的是( ) A 物体M运动时,电源内的电流会发生变化 B 物体M运动时,电压表的示数会发生变化 C 物体M不动时,电路中没有电流 D 物体M不动时,电压表没有示数 B Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 电容式位移传感器 电容式位移传感器能够把物体电容式位移传感器能够把物体__________这个力学量转这个力学量转 换为换为__________这个电学量这个电学量 位移位移 电容电容 电容式位移传感器示意图 被测物体 x 电容器极板 电介质板 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination ((1 1)测定角度)测定角度θ θ ((2 2)测定液面高度)测定液面高度h h ((3 3)测定压力)测定压力F F ((4 4)测定位移)测定位移x x 定片 动片 θ 电介质 金属芯线 导电液体 待测压力F 固定电极 可动电极 x 极板 极板 电介质 其它电容式传感器 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 例4:可测量飞机、航天器、潜艇的转动角速度,其结构如图所示。 当系统绕轴OO′转动时,元件A发生位移并输出相应的电压信号, 成为飞机、卫星等的制导系统的信息源。已知A的质量为m,弹簧 的劲度系数为k、自然长度为l,电源的电动势为E、内阻不计。滑 动变阻器总长也为l ,电阻分布均匀,系统静止时P在B点,当系统 以角速度ω转动时,试写出输出电压U与ω的函数式。 A S P CB ω O O′ 输出电压U 解:设弹簧伸长x , 则 ∴ x= m ω2 l / ( k-m ω2 ) 设滑动变阻器单位长度 的电阻为r1 U=IRx=Exr1 / l r1= Ex/ l ∴ U= Em ω2 /(k-m ω2) Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 例5:将金属块m用压缩的轻弹簧卡在一个矩形的箱中,如图所示, 在箱的上顶板和下底板装有压力传感器,箱可以沿竖直轨道运动。 当箱以a=2.0 m/s2的加速度竖直向上做匀减速运动时,上顶板的传感 器显示的压力为6.0N,下底板的传感器显示的压力为10.0N。(取 g=10 m/s2) (1)若上顶板传感器的示数是下底板 传感器的示数的一半, 试判断箱的 运动情况。 (2)要使上顶板传感器的示数为零,箱 沿竖直方向运动的情况可能是怎样的? m Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 原来 (1)(2)解: m F=10N F1 =6N mg a 向上做匀减速运 动a向下a=2m/s2 mg+F1-F=ma m=0.5kg F mg F2 a2 上顶板示数是下 底板示数的1/2 弹簧长度不变 F=10N F2=5N mg+F2-F=ma2 a2=0 静止或匀速运动 F mg a3 上顶板示数为零,则弹 簧变短F≥10N F3=0 F – mg = ma3 a3 ≥ 10m/s2 向上加速或向下减速, 加速度a≥ 10m/s2。 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 声传感器的应用声传感器的应用————话筒话筒 传感器应用实例传感器应用实例 (1)话筒的作用是什么? (2)说明动圈式话筒的工作原理和工作过程。 (3)说明电容式话筒的工作原理和工作过程。这 种话筒的优点是什么? (4)驻极体话筒的工作原理是什么?有何优点? Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 4.声电传感器 例题1.(2003上海试题)唱卡拉OK用的话筒,内有传感器。其中 有一种是动圈式的,它的工作原理是在弹性膜片后面粘接一个轻 小的金属线圈,线圈处于永磁体的磁场中,当声波使膜片前后振 动时,就将声音信号转变为电信号。下列说法正确的是( ) A 该传感器是根据电流的磁效应工作的 B 该传感器是根据电磁感应原理工作的 C 膜片振动时,穿过金属线圈的磁通量不变 D 膜片振动时,金属线圈中不会产生感应电动势 B Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 常温下两触点分离。温度升高,两种金属膨胀 性能不同,双金属片形状发生变化,使触点接触。 三、温度传感器的应用三、温度传感器的应用————电熨斗电熨斗 传感器应用实例传感器应用实例 双金属片温度传感器: Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 例2.日光灯的启动器也可看成是一个热敏传感装置,它的热敏功能 器是双金属片,你能说出启动器的工作原理吗? U形动动触片 静触片 氖氖 泡 图1 解析:日光灯启动器结构如图所示 ,内有一双金属片,热膨胀系数不 同。开关闭合后,启动器两极之间 有电压使氖气放电而发出辉光,辉 光发出的热量使U形动触片受热膨胀 向外延伸,碰到静触片接触,电路 接通;温度降低时,U动触片向里收 缩,离开触点,切断电路。 Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 电熨斗的构造 思考与讨论: ●常温下两触点是接触还是分离? ●如何用调温旋钮来升高或降低电烫斗的工作温 度? Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination 例3.电熨斗:利用双金属片温度传感器控制电路的通断. Cooperate with the group company to carry out luggage, cargo leakage, leakage, wrong installation, wrong unloading special rectification work, the introduction of the company's special treatment program, and self-examination (1)电饭锅中温度传感器的主要元件是什么? (2)感温铁氧体的组成物质是什么? (3)感温铁氧体有何特点? (4)什么是“居里点”? 温度传感器的应用温度传感器的应用————电饭锅电饭锅 Cooperate with the group company to carry o
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