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8D训练教材

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8D 训练教材
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品保品保工作室:陈振雄工作室:陈振雄 Corrective Action Procedures Corrective Action Procedures 8-Discipline Form Approach 8-Discipline Form Approach 改善措施程序改善措施程序 寫寫8 8D FormD Form方法方法 PQEPQE訓練教材訓練教材 1 CONTENTCONTENT 1.What is the 8-Discipline. 3 3 何謂8D? 2.When shall 8-D be used. 4 4 什么時候用到8D. 3.Containment conduct observation;try fix and check result 用試驗對假設進行确認,同巳有的資料進行對比,嘗試得出結論并驗証 .WHAT, WHERE,WHEN,EXTENT Identify Possible causes 找出所有可能的原因 Use knowledge,experience 利用知識和經驗 Identify distinctions and changes 估計可能的原因諸實施原因 19 Evaluate Possible Causes 估計可能的原因 Test possible causes to determine most probable cause 對所有可能的原因進行測試以确定最有可能引起不良的原因 Confirm True Cause 确認真正的原因. Verify assumptions made in testing; conduct observation; try fix and check result 用試驗對假設進行确認,同巳有資料進行對比,嘗試得出結論并驗証 Problem Analysis – Describe Problem state problem 問題的狀況 20 What is the defective object(unit)? 不良對象是什么? What is the defect 不良的原因(為什么被判為不良) Specify problem 問題的詳細描述 IS IS NOT What what specific object(s)has What similar object(s)could reasonably the defect have the defect,but does not? 哪一類對象會有不良 哪一類對象本來可能會有不良,但卻沒有 不良被發現? What is the specific defect? What other defects could reasonably be observed,but is not? 是在什么地方發現不良(地理上的)? 有什么不良本來應該被發現,但卻沒有被發現? 21 Where Where is the defective object Where else could the defective objective observed(geographically)? Be observe,but is not? 是在什么地方發現不良(地理上的)? 還有什么地方應該發現不良,但沒有發現? 不良被發現? Where is the defect on the object? Where else could the defective be on the object,but is not? 不良出現在產品的什么地方? 此產品還有什么地方可能出現或發現不良, 但卻沒有出現(或發現)? Problem Analysis – Describe Problem Specify problem 22 When When was the defective object When else could the defective object first observed(in clock/calendar have been first observed,but was not? When since that time has the What other times could the defective defective object been observed? Object have been observed,but was Any patterm? Not ? When,in the object’s life cycle or When else could the defect have been history,was the defect frst obser first observed in the object’s life cycle -ved? But was not? 不良品第一次被發現是在什么時間 在此之前有沒有不良品本應被發現但卻 此次不良產生在什么時候?有何特征? 沒有被發現? 在產品的生命周期中,不良品第一次被發 有什么別的不良本應被發現卻沒有被發 現是在何時? 現? IS IS NOT 23 Extent How many objects have the defect? How many objects have the defect but do not? What is the size of a single defect? What other size could the defect How many defects are each object? Be,but is not? What has been the trend? What other trends could have been expected,but were not observed? 有多少產品有此類不良? 有多少產品本可能有此不良但卻沒有? 單項不良有多少? 為什么在其余的也應有不良發現的產品 此种不良每件產品有几處? 卻沒有發現不良? 發展趨勢如何? 同一產品上有多少本應有不良發現的地 方卻沒有發現不良? 為何另外一個預想中的發展趨勢沒有發生? 24 Problem Analysis – Identify Possible Causes Identify Possible Cause Use knowledge and experience to develop possible cause state -ments. 利用知識与經驗來找出問題產生的可能原因. Use distinctions and changes to develop possible cause statements. 利用差別与變异來找出問題產生的可能原因. From experience,what could have caused this deviation? 由經驗判斷,是什么因素導致這种現象產生. What is different or unique about or about each distinction? 所有的特征量中變化的量有哪些? 25 When did the change occur? 變化出現的時間 How could each change have caused this deviation? 各不同的因素變更是如何導致不良現象的產生? How could a change plus a distinction have caused this deviation? 一個變化加上一個特性后是如何引起不良的產生? How could a change plus a change have caused this deviation? 兩個變化相加是如何引起不良的產生? 26 Problem Analysis – Evaluate Possible Cause Evaluate possible causes Test possible cause against the IS and IS NOT to determine most pro -bable cause. 對IS 項和IS NOT 項中不同的可能性的因素以确定最可能的原因. If ”X” is the true cause,how does it explain both the IS and IS NOT Infromation. 假如找到一個真因,那么這個真因是如何解釋IS項和IS NOT項中的各個條件的. 27 What assumptions have to be made to explain the specification? 必須作出何种假設,方可解釋上述細節. Of the causes tested against the specification,which best explains The IS and IS NOT data? 如果此原因被証明不是真因,該如何給它為非真因的合理解釋? 28 Problem Analysis – Confirm True Cause Confirm true cause Verify assumptions made in testing conduct observation Try fix and check result. 确認我們針對不良現象所作出的假設.看能否确認并檢查之. What can be done to verify any assumptions made in testing This cause? 為了驗証我們在檢驗不良原因時所作的假設, 能夠采取哪些措施? When corrective action is taken,how will results be checked? 如果己經采取改善(糾正措施,怎樣确認改善結果? v 以上是對8D的基本概念的描述,下面是8D FORM來描述, 也許會更清晰些 29 30 寫8D注意事項 收到客戶抱怨後24小時內必須回復‧ 8D不是一氣呵成全部寫完,不是兩個小時或半小時 8個項目可寫好‧ 因8D可用版本控制,收到抱怨後24小時內可以完成1D. 2D.4D.6D可用REV:A或R00來控制 接下來找到真因後在A版之前提下寫出3D. 5D.6D.7D. REV定義為B或R01 31 有些改善對策不是一二天可以看到效果的,REV B 只寫出1D.2D.3D.4D.5D.7D 6D只是對立即改善措施 的確認 一份完整的8D一般在一周內才能全部完成,一份 8D可能有3到4個版本 8D的每項日期,只有1D.2D.3D日期一樣,其餘各D 日期是按你所提出日期來決定,可能相1~2天 8D後面要附一些附件來說明你的改善對策是否合理 附件里必須有改善前後的文件,統計報表等‧ 32
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