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添添课件库 高三生物复习课件专题六 第1讲 人和动物生命活动的调节方式及人体的稳态

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添添课件库 高三生物复习课件专题六 第1讲 人和动物生命活动的调节方式及人体的稳
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With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 专题六 生命活动的调节 第 1 讲 人和动物生命活动的调节方式及人体的稳态 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 考纲内容要求 动物生命活动的调节 (1)人体神经调节 的结构基础和调节过 程 (2)神经冲动的产生和传导 (3)人脑的高级功能 (4)脊椎动物激素的调节 (5)脊椎动物激素在生产中的应用 人体的内环境与稳态 (6)神经、体液调节 在维持稳态 中的作用 (7)体温调节 、水盐调节 和血糖调节 (8)人体免疫系统在维持稳态 中的作用 (9)艾滋病的流行和预防 (10)稳态 的生理意义 (11)模拟尿糖的检测 Ⅱ Ⅱ Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅱ Ⅱ Ⅱ Ⅱ Ⅰ Ⅱ 实验 与探究能力 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 反射弧 反射 双向性 单向性 下丘脑 甲状腺 胰高血糖素 温度 渗透压 酸碱度 血浆 组织液 淋巴 皮肤和黏膜 吞噬细胞 B 淋巴细胞T 淋巴细胞 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 兴奋的传导和传递 兴奋在神经纤维上传导和在神经元间传递的过程与方向比较: 图示过程方向 在 神 经 纤 维 上 刺激→ 使膜两 侧产生 电位差 →形成 局部电 流→局 部电流 回路(兴 奋区) 未兴奋 区 双向 传导 ,且 传导 方向 与膜 内局 部电 流方 向相 同 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 图示过程方向 在 神 经 元 间 突触小泡 释放神经 递质 →突 触(突触前 膜→突触 间隙→突 触后膜)→ 下一神经 元细胞体 或树突 单向 传 递, 只能 由突 触前 膜→ 突触 后膜 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 【典例 1】(2012 年惠州二模)下图是反射弧的模式图(a、b、 c、d、e 表示反射弧的组成部分,Ⅰ、Ⅱ表示突触的组成部分), 有关说法正确的是() A.正常机体内兴奋在反射弧中的传导是单向的 B.切断 d、刺激 b,不会引起效应器的收缩 C.兴奋在结构 c 和结构 b 的传导速度相同 D.Ⅱ处发生的信号变化是电信号→化学信号→电信号 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society [名师点拨]兴奋在突触的传递是单向的,所以兴奋在反射 弧中的传导也是单向的,A 正确;图示中 a 是效应器,b 是传 出神经,刺激 b 处,效应器会发生反应,B 错;c 代表的是神经 中枢,结构中有突触,发生的电信号→化学信号→电信号的转 换会使神经冲动的传导速度减慢,而冲动在 b 上的传导是以电 信号形式进行的,速度较快,C 错;Ⅱ处只发生了电信号→化 学信号的转变,D 错。 [答案]A With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 【典例 2】(2012 年全国新课标)当人看见酸梅时唾液分泌 会大量增加。对此现象的分析,错误的是() A.这一反射过程需要大脑皮层的参与 B.这是一种反射活动,其效应器是唾液腺 C.酸梅色泽直接刺激神经中枢引起唾液分泌 D.这一过程中有“电—化学—电”信号的转化 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society [名师点拨]看到酸梅时唾液会大量分泌,这是一种反射活 动,唾液是由唾液腺分泌的,所以效应器是唾液腺。在这个过 程中,人并没吃到酸梅,但是看到酸梅时,联想到酸梅的味道, 从而引起唾液分泌,是一种条件反射,因此需要大脑皮层的参 与。但是酸梅的色泽并不能直接刺激神经中枢。整个反射过程 中兴奋传导和传递过程中,会有“电—化学—电”形式的转化。 [答案]C With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 【典例 3】(2012 年深圳二模)下列甲、乙分别是人体膝跳 反射的反射弧和突触结构示意简图,数字表示结构,字母表示 物质。 (1) 在进行膝跳反射时,①与②之间兴奋的传递方向是 ________;神经冲动主要是由于神经纤维膜两侧的离子变化产 生的__________________形成。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society (2)小王同学取指血进行化验,当针刺破手指时,并未将手 缩回。这说明____________________________。 (3)图乙是甲中③的放大图。乙显示的是__________个细胞 的部分结构。 (4)④中的神经递质 a 是通过________方式进入⑤。⑥一般 是神经元的____________部分的细胞膜。参与 b 物质合成的细 胞器包括___________________________(至少写 4 个)。 (5)激素传递信息的速度比神经传导兴奋的速度慢,原因在 于前者_______________________________________。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society [名师点拨](1)通过③突触结构可知,②为传出神经,连接 着效应器,故传递方向为①→②,电信号由于神经纤维膜两侧 的离子变化产生的电位差而形成。 (2)小王在针刺破手指时,并未将手缩回。这说明缩手反射 的中枢在脊髓,受高级中枢(大脑皮层)控制 。 (3)图乙表示突触结构,由上一个神经元的轴突末端的突触 小体膜和下一个神经元的树突膜或者胞体膜组成。 (4)神经递质 a 是通过胞吐(外排)方式进入突触间隙,⑥是 突触后膜,由树突膜或者胞体膜组成。b 是突触后膜上的特异 性受体,化学本质为蛋白质,参与 b 物质合成的细胞器有核糖 体、线粒体、内质网、高尔基体等。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society (5)激素需要通过体液的传送,需要与相应的靶细胞受体的 结合。 [答案](1)①→②电位差(变化) (2)缩手反射的中枢在脊髓,受高级中枢(大脑皮层)控制 (3)2 (4)胞吐(外排)胞体或树突核糖体、线粒体、内质网、 高尔基体等 (5)需要通过体液的传送,需要与相应的靶细胞受体结合 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 激素分泌的分级调节 1.激素调节:当外界环境条件改变时,中枢神经系统可以 直接控制某些内分泌腺的分泌,也可通过下丘脑、垂体间接控 制某些内分泌腺的分泌。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 2.反馈调节:在一个系统中,系统本身工作的效果,反过 来又作为信息调节该系统的工作。 (1) With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 如上图所示,一种激素分泌后,引起相应生理效应的同时, 血液内该激素的含量又反馈控制着这种激素的分泌。当血液中 甲状腺激素含量过高时,可以反过来抑制下丘脑合成和分泌促 甲状腺激素释放激素,同时抑制垂体合成和分泌促甲状腺激素, 从而使血液中的甲状腺激素含量下降,这就是一种典型的(负) 反馈调节。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society (2)血糖平衡调节过程中,也存在反馈调节机制(如下图所 示): 提醒:血糖平衡调节以激素调节为主,但也存在神经调节。 下丘脑是血糖调节中枢,直接通过神经作用于胰岛细胞。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 【典例 1】(2012 年顺德统考)下图表示下丘脑、垂体、甲 状腺之间的关系(“+”表示促进,“-”表示抑制),有关说 法不正确的是() A.a、b、c 分别表示下丘脑、垂体、甲状腺 B.a 分泌的激素增多对 b 分泌激素有促进作用 C.b 分泌的激素对 a、c 分泌激素都有抑制作用 D.甲状腺激素分泌的调节机制是分级调节与反馈调节 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society [名师点拨]此题目考查甲状腺激素的三级调节,下丘脑分 泌的促甲状腺激素释放激素,促进垂体分泌促甲状腺激素,作 用于甲状腺分泌甲状腺激素,当甲状腺激素过多,反过来抑制 下丘脑和垂体分泌相应激素。故 c 为下丘脑,a 为垂体,b 为甲 状腺。 [答案]A With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 【典例 2】(2012 年海南高考)关于甲状腺激素的叙述中, 错误的是() A.甲状腺激素的分泌受下丘脑和垂体的调节 B.甲状腺激素分泌增多时,机体耗氧量和产热量都增加 C.促甲状腺激素只作用于甲状腺,而甲状腺激素可作用 于多种器官 D.血液中甲状腺激素水平降低会引起促甲状激素释放激 素分泌减少 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society [名师点拨]下丘脑分泌促甲状腺激素释放激素到达垂体, 调节垂体促甲状腺激素的分泌,继而影响和调节甲状腺的分泌 活动,故 A 项正确;甲状腺激素可以促进新陈代谢,分泌增多 时机体耗氧量和产热量都增加,故 B 项正确;促甲状腺激素影 响和调节甲状腺的分泌活动,甲状腺激素可以促进新陈代谢, 促进生长发育,提高神经系统的兴奋性,故 C 项正确;下丘脑 和垂体对甲状腺激素的调节属于负反馈调节,甲状腺激素水平 降低会引起下丘脑活动增强,促甲状激素释放激素分泌增加, 故 D 项错误。 [答案]D With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 【典例 3】(2012 年佛山一模)下图表示人体进食后,血糖、 胰岛素含量的变化情况,据图回答: (1)胰岛素降低血糖浓度途径之一是促进______________。 在细胞内,核基因表达产生胰岛素前体,再依次经过_________ 等细胞结构完成加工、分泌等一系列过程。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society (2)补充完成下列调节模型: [名师点拨]此题考察血糖调节过程。胰岛素降低血糖的途 径有三大途径,其一,血糖的氧化分解,提供能量。其二,葡 糖糖合成糖原储存在肌肉、肝脏中。其三,葡萄糖转化成非糖 物质脂肪、某些氨基酸等。分泌蛋白形成的过程中与内质网、 (囊泡)、高尔基体、(囊泡)、细胞膜等细胞结构有关。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society [答案](1)细胞摄取葡萄糖/血糖分解/葡萄糖转化成非糖物 质/葡萄糖合成糖原(回答其中一个即可) 内质网、(囊泡)、高尔 基体、(囊泡)、细胞膜 (2)见下图 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 人体的内环境与稳态的调节机制 1.内环境——细胞与外界环境沟通的桥梁。 (1)组织细胞与外界环境的物质交换必须通过内环境。 (2)与物质交换直接相关的器官是皮肤,系统有呼吸、消化、 循环、泌尿四大系统。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society (3)稳态变化的原因:细胞代谢和外界环境的变化 环 (3)内环境和细胞外液的“内”与“外”是相对的,从细胞 的角度看内环境就是细胞外液,从人体角度看细胞外液就是内 环境。 2.稳态: (1)实质:动态平衡,相对稳定状态。 (2)调节机制:神经—体液—免疫调节网络。 境的组成成分、理化性质。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 【典例 1】(2012 年韶关一模)关于内环境与稳态的叙述, 错误的是() A.免疫对内环境稳态具有重要作用 B.内环境主要由血浆、组织液和淋巴组成 C.血浆的主要成分包括水、葡萄糖、血红蛋白和激素等 D.内环境稳态不能维持,机体的生命活动就会受到威胁 [名师点拨]血浆属于细胞外液,包括水、无机盐、蛋白质 以及血液运送的各种营养物质(如葡糖糖、各种代谢废物、气体、 激素等)。血红蛋白在红细胞内,不属于细胞外液。 [答案]C With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 【典例 2】(2012 年上海高考)下图代表肌细胞与环境的物 )质交换关系。X、Y、Z 表示三种细胞外液,叙述错误的是( A.若饮食过咸,则 Y 中渗透压会升高 B.X 中的大分子物质可通过 Z 进入 Y C.肌细胞的代谢产物可能导致 X 的 pH 降低 D.X、Y、Z 理化性质的稳定依赖于神经调节 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society [名师点拨]图中 X 是组织液,Y 是血浆,Z 是淋巴。若饮 食过咸,则血浆中渗透压会升高,A 正确;组织液中的大分子 物质可通过淋巴进入血浆,B 正确;肌细胞无氧呼吸的代谢产 物是乳酸可导致组织液的 pH 略有降低,C 正确;内环境的稳 态依赖于神经-体液-免疫调节网络。 [答案]D With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 神经—体液调节在维持稳态中的实例 1.水盐平衡调节: (1)抗利尿激素由下丘脑神经细胞分泌,由垂体释放。 (2)水盐平衡的调节中枢是下丘脑,产生渴觉的中枢是大脑 皮层。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 2.体温调节: With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society (1)体温调节中枢是下丘脑,而冷觉与温觉形成的部位是大 脑皮层。 (2)寒冷条件下体温调节既有神经调节也有体液调节,而炎 热环境下只有神经调节。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 【典例 1】(2012 年全国新课标)哺乳动物因长期未饮水导 致机体脱水时,会发生的生理现象是() A.血浆渗透压降低 B.抗利尿激素分泌增加 C.下丘脑渗透压感受器受到的刺激减弱 D.肾小管和集合管对水的重吸收作用减弱 [名师点拨]哺乳动物脱水,细胞外液的渗透压会升高,对 下丘脑渗透压感受器的刺激增强,从而产生更多的抗利尿激素, 促进肾小管和集合管重新收水分,所以 B 正确。 [答案]B With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 【典例 2】(2012 年茂名一模)人突然受到寒冷刺激时,引 起骨骼肌收缩而打寒颤。下列关于该反射的叙述,错误的是 () A.该反射弧的神经中枢主要是下丘脑 B.该反射弧的效应器是传出神经末梢和骨骼肌 C.寒冷刺激引起的兴奋在该反射弧的突触上双向传导 D.寒冷刺激引起的兴奋经过突触时的信号变化为电信号 →化学信号→电信号 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society [名师点拨]体温调节中枢是下丘脑,兴奋经传出神经到达 效应器骨骼肌和立毛肌,引起肌肉收缩,而产热增加,维持体 温稳定。电信号在反射弧上的传导是单向的,是因为兴奋经过 突触时,由突触前膜释放神经递质到突触间隙,再与突触后膜 上受体结合的过程是单向的。兴奋经过突触时的信号变化为电 信号→化学信号→电信号。 [答案]C With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 免疫系统在维持稳态中的作用 1.与免疫有关的细胞的比较: 注意:上述细胞,除浆细胞外都能识别抗原,但吞噬细胞 的识别无特异性。 项目来源功能 吞噬细胞造血干细胞摄取和处理抗原,吞噬抗原 —抗体结合体 B细胞造血干细胞在骨髓中发 育形成 分化成为浆细 胞、记忆细 胞 T细胞造血干细胞在胸腺中发 育形成 分泌淋巴因子,分化成为效 应T细胞、记忆细 胞 浆细 胞B细胞或记忆细 胞分泌特异性抗体 效应T细胞T细胞或记忆细 胞与靶细胞结合发挥 免疫效 应 记忆细 胞B细胞或T细胞分化成浆细 胞或效应T细胞 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 2.体液免疫和细胞免疫的比较: (1)吞噬细胞既参与特异性免疫,又参与非特异性免疫。T 细胞既参与细胞免疫,又参与大部分的体液免疫,因此,缺乏 T 细胞的机体几乎没有特异性免疫。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society (2)记忆细胞参与二次免疫,比初次反应更快、更强烈、抗 体产生量更大,能在抗原侵入但尚未患病之前将其消灭。 (3)抗原侵入机体后,首先体液免疫发挥作用,但抗原一旦 侵入宿主细胞内,则通过细胞免疫发挥作用,因此,体液免疫 和细胞免疫二者既有各自的作用,又相互配合,共同发挥免疫 效应。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 【典例 1】(2012 年广东高考)有关人体免疫的叙述中,正 确的是() A.机体主要依赖免疫调节维持内环境稳态 B.病原微生物侵袭,可引起机体产生特异性免疫 C.特异性免疫过程中,只有 T 细胞产生记忆细胞 D.如果神经中枢受损,机体的特异性免疫功能完全丧失 [名师点拨]机体依赖神经-体液-免疫系统共同调节内环 境的稳态,所以 A 错;在特异性免疫的过程中,B 淋巴细胞也 可以产生记忆细胞,所以 C 错;神经中枢受损,不会导致特异 性免疫功能完全丧失。 [答案]B With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 【典例 2】(2012 年福建高考)将小鼠 B 细胞注入家兔体内, 产生免疫反应后,家兔血清能使小鼠 T 细胞凝集成团。而未经 免疫的家兔血清不能使小鼠 T 细胞凝集成团。T 细胞凝集现象 的出现是因为() A.小鼠 B 细胞诱导家兔产生细胞免疫 B.小鼠 T 细胞诱导家兔产生体液免疫 C.小鼠 B 细胞和小鼠 T 细胞有相同抗原 D.小鼠 T 细胞和家兔 T 细胞有相同抗原 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society [名师点拨]小鼠 B 细胞注入家兔的体内,产生免疫反应后, 在家兔的血清中可以找到相应的抗体。而血清也可以和小鼠 T 细胞凝集,根据抗原和抗体之间的特异性结合特点来看,说明 小鼠 B 细胞和小鼠 T 细胞具有相同的抗原。 [答案]C With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society Egypt Pyramids is by far one of the largest buildings, became the ancient Egypt civilization and one of the lasting symbols of the most influential, most of these pyramid built in Egypt in the Old Kingdom and Kingdom. 埃及金字塔是至今最大的建筑群之一,成为了古埃及文明最有影响 力和持久的象徵之一,这些金字塔大部分建造于埃及古王国和中王 国时期。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society The American West's most beautiful and most visited national parks, and the Grand Canyon National Park, Yellowstone National Park, famous, located in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California (Sierra Nevada, Spanish: snow mountain) on. 是美国西部最美丽、参观人数最多的国家公园之一,与大峡谷国家 公园、黄石国家公园齐名,位于加利福尼亚州东部内华达山脉 (Sierra Nevada,西班牙语:下雪的山)上。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society Hawaii is the largest island in the Hawaiian Islands, located in the tropical climate is mild and pleasant, is the world's tourism industry one of the most developed, has a unique beautiful environment, beautiful scenery, charming beaches夏威夷,是夏 威夷群岛中最大的岛屿,地处热带,气候却温和宜人,是世界上旅 游工业最发达的地方之一,拥有得天独厚的美丽环境,风光明媚, 海滩迷人。 . With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society Road, north of Luo Maite Shan mountain in Bolzano, Italy, the original ecologic
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本文标题:添添课件库 高三生物复习课件专题六 第1讲 人和动物生命活动的调节方式及人体的稳态
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