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2015中考化学冲刺专题七 工艺流程

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中考化学专题 2015中考
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To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 化化 学学 第七部分 专题复习 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题七 工艺流程 [知识整理] 一、化工生产流程问题 (与初中内容有关的化学工业) 1、侯氏制碱法 2、石灰石工业 3、合成氨工业 4、金属的冶炼:Mg、Fe、Cu等 5、海水资源的开发和利用 二、解此类题型的基本步骤 1、从题干中获取有用信息,了解生产的产品。 2、分析流程中的每一步骤,从几个方面了解流程:①反应物是什么 ②发生了什么反应 ③该反应造成了什么后果,对制造产品有什么作用。抓住一个关键点:一切反应或操作都 是为获得产品而服务。 3、从问题中获取信息,帮助解题,多数试题重点考察利用题干中的信息解决问题的能力以 及物质的制备,考察有关化学实验操作,同时考察化学方程式的书写技能。 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题七 工艺流程 [例题分析] [例1] (2014梅州).某兴趣小组在实验室发现了一块绿色的孔雀石标本,查阅资料知其 主要成分是Cu2 (OH)2 CO3。他们以Cu2 (OH)2 CO3原料制取铜,其工艺流程如下图所示: 过滤操作中用到的铁制仪器为 。 无色气体A的化学式是 ,大气中该气体含量不断上升,会导致 增强,全球气候变暖 。 写出蓝色溶液B与铁粉反应的化学方程式 。 试剂E可选用 溶液。 【思路点拨】:碱式碳酸铜和过量的硫酸反应会生成硫酸铜、水和二氧化碳,所以蓝色溶 液B是硫酸铜溶液,其中含有反应剩余的稀硫酸,硫酸铜和铁反应会生成硫酸亚铁和铜,所 以C中含有铁和铜,溶液D中含有硫酸亚铁和硫酸,铁和硫酸反应生成硫酸亚铁和氢气,所 以F是氢气,碱式碳酸铜和硫酸反应生成硫酸铜、水和二氧化碳,硫酸铜和铁反应生成硫酸 亚铁和铜,铁和硫酸反应生成硫酸亚铁和氢气,推导合理. To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题七 工艺流程 (1)过滤操作中用到的仪器有:烧杯、漏斗、玻璃棒、铁架台、滤纸等,所以过滤操作中 用到的铁制仪器为:铁架台; (2)通过推导可知A是二氧化碳,化学式为:CO2,大气中二氧化碳含量增多,会导致温室 效应增强,全球气候变暖; (3)铁和硫酸铜反应生成硫酸亚铁和铜,化学方程式为:CuSO4+Fe=FeSO4+Cu; (4)通过推导可知固体C中含有铁和铜,铁排在氢之前,铜排在氢之后,所以试剂E可选用 稀硫酸溶液. [解答]:(1)铁架台; (2)温室效应; (3)CuSO4+Fe=FeSO4+Cu; (4)稀硫酸. [例2](2010肇庆)海水中有大量可以利用的化学资源,例如氯化镁、氯化钠、溴化钾等。综合 利用海水制备金属镁的流程如下图所示: To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题七 工艺流程 (1)贝壳主要成分的化学式是 。 (2)操作a的名称是 ,在实验室中进行此项操作,需要的玻璃仪器有烧杯、玻璃棒、 。 (3)工业冶炼镁常用电解MgCl2的方法,反应为:MgCl2 Mg+ 。 (4)写出第②、③两步反应的化学方程式:② ,③ 。 【思路点拨】 (1)贝壳主要成分是碳酸钙;(2)由流程图可知操作a要固液分离,是过滤,在实验室中 进行此项操作,还需要的玻璃仪器是漏斗;(3)根据质量守恒定律,反应方程式易写出, (4)由流程图可知写出第②、③两步反应的化学方程式 [解答] (1)(1分)CaCO3 (2)(2分)过滤 漏斗 (3)(1分)Cl2 (4)(4分)②CaO+H2O===Ca(OH)2 ③Mg(OH)2+2HCl===MgCl2+2H2O To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题七 工艺流程 强化训练: A组 1.工业生产纯碱的示意图如下: 请完成下列填空: (1)写出流程中一种氧化物的化学式 ____________ (2)NH3溶于水得到氨水,该溶液的pH ____7(填写“大于”、“小于”或“等于”). (3)写出氯化镁溶液与氢氧化钙溶液反应的化学方程式:____ ____________ (4)工业生产纯碱的流程中,碳酸化时析出碳酸氢钠而没有析出碳酸钠的原因是 ________________________________________________ (5)写出高温煅烧碳酸氢钠制取纯碱的化学方程式: _______ _____________. 2.(2014•绍兴)氯化钡是一种可溶性重金属盐,广泛应用于化工领域.用毒重石(主要成 分为BaCO3)制备氯化钡晶体的部分工艺流程如图: H2O或CO2 大于 Ca(OH)2+MgCl2=Mg(OH)2↓+CaCl2 相同温度下,碳酸氢钠的溶解度小于碳酸钠的溶解度. 2NaHCO3 高温 Na2CO3+H2O+CO2↑ To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题七 工艺流程 (1)本流程中“浓缩”、“结晶”属于_______变化. (2)滤液2中可利用的物质除水之外,还有 _________(填化学式). (3)下列措施中,能提高原料的利用率和氯化钡晶体产量的有 ________(选填序号). ①将毒重石进行粉碎 ②加入足量的稀盐酸 ③将滤液2通入到滤液1中. 3.(2012肇庆)某食盐样品中含有少量沙土、氯化钙和氯化镁。以下是除去食盐样品中 沙土、氯化钙和氯化镁的实验流程: 物理 BaCl2 ①②③ 根据流程图回答: (1)操作Ⅰ的名称是 ,加入的试剂A是 ,沉淀是 ; (2)写出NaOH与杂 质反应的化学方程式 ; (3)加入试剂B的目的是 ; (4)蒸发结晶时用到玻璃棒的作用是 。 2NaOH+MgCl2 === Mg(OH)2↓+2NaCl 过滤 碳酸钠(或Na2CO3) 碳酸钙(或CaCO3) 除去NaOH和Na2CO3 搅拌,防止局部过热导致残留物飞溅 To study and
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