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2015中考化学冲刺专题一 推断题

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中考化学冲刺专题 中考化学推断题 专题一推断题 中考化学冲刺 中考化学专题 中考化学推断题专题 中考化学推断 中考化学专题一
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To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all­round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all­round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti­corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 化化 学学 第七部分 专题复习 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all­round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all­round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti­corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题一 推断题 [知识整理] 一.解题方法 (1)全题兼顾,找到题目的突破口,并把题目的关键信息标注在题中. (2)根据找到的题目突破口,进行顺推或逆推,把能推出的尽量先写在题目上,进而全面解答. (3)把推出的答案放回原题去进行检验,确立答案的正确性. 二.做推断题的一些思考方法 1.若题目指出某物质是常见的酸,则试着用HCl或H2SO4进行推导; 2.若题目指出某物质是常见的碱,则试着用NaOH或Ca(OH)2进行推导; 3.若题目指出某物质是常见的盐,则试着用NaCl或Na2CO3或CaCO3或其它可能的物质进行 推导; 4.推断题中,若指出某物质为生成的气体,则试着用CO2或进行推导,不行再试用O2或H2 进行推导。 三.推断题常用的突破口 1. 以物质特征颜色为突破口 (1)固体颜色:常见的黑色固体:_________________________; 常见的红色固体:___________、HgO、红磷。 Fe、C、CuO、MnO2、 Fe3O4 Cu、Fe2O3 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all­round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all­round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti­corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题一 推断题 (2)溶液颜色:蓝色:含____离子;例如:____________;浅绿色:含_______离子;例 如:____________;黄色:含____离子;例如:____________; (3)火焰颜色:蓝紫色:_______ 蓝色:_____________在O2中燃烧; (4)沉淀颜色:不溶于稀硝酸的白色沉淀:________________ 溶于稀硝酸的并产生气泡白色沉淀: 。 溶于稀硝酸的无气泡产生白色沉淀:Mg(OH)2、Al(OH)3 蓝色沉淀: __________;红褐色沉淀: _________。 2. 以物质物征反应条件为突破口 点燃有____参加的反应;高温(CaCO3分解;C、CO还原CuO、Fe2O3); 加热(KClO3、KMnO4等的分解,H2还原CuO、Fe2O3); 通电(电解H2O);催化剂(KClO3、H2O2分解制O2). 3. 以物质特征反应现象为突破口 (1)能使澄清石灰水变浑浊的无色无味气体是_______。 (2)能使黑色CuO变红(或红色Fe2O3变黑)的气体是_________,固体是____。 (3)能使燃烧着的木条正常燃烧的气体是空气,燃烧得更旺的气体是_____,使火焰熄灭 的气体是_________;能使带火星的木条复燃的气体是_____。 铜 CuCl2、CuSO4 亚铁 FeCl2、FeSO4 铁 FeCl3、Fe2(SO4)3 S在O2中燃烧 H2、CO、CH4 BaSO4、AgCl Fe(OH)3Cu(OH)2 CaCO3、BaCO3 O2 CO2 H2或COC O2 O2 CO2或N2 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all­round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all­round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti­corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题一 推断题 (4)能使白色无水CuSO4粉末变蓝的气体是_________。 (5)在O2中燃烧火星四射的物质是_____。 (6)在O2中燃烧发出耀眼的白光的物质是_________ (7)在空气中燃烧生成CO2和H2O的物质是有机物,如:___________等。 (8)不能溶于盐酸或稀HNO3的白色沉淀有AgCl、BaSO4。 4. 以元素或物质之最为突破口 (1)地壳中含量最多的元素是____,含量最多的金属元素是______。 (2)海水中含量最多的元素是_____,含量最多的金属元素是______。 (3)人体中含量最多的元素是_____。空气中含量最多的元素是_____。 (4)形成化合物最多的元素是_______。 (5)相对分子质量最小,密度最小的气体是_____。 (6)相对分子质量最小的氧化物是______。 (7)自然界中硬度最大的物质是_________。 (8)最简单的有机物是_______。最常用的溶剂是_______。 (9)人体中含量最多的物质是_______。 (10)氧元素占50%的氧化物是______。 水蒸气 Fe Al、Mg CH4、C2H5OH O Al O Na O N C H2 H2O 金刚石 CH4 H2O H2O SO2 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all­round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all­round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti­corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题一 推断题 (11)金属之最:熔点最高的金属—— 导电性、导热性最强的金属是______ 人体中含量最高的金属元素是______ 目前世界年产量最高的金属是______ 熔点最低的金属是________ (12)元素组成相同的化合物:_______和_______ ;________和________;_______和_______; _______和_______ [例题分析] [例1]:(2013佛山)A、B、C、D、E是初中化学常见物质,转化关系如右图(其中部分生成物 和反应条件已略):已知B是黑色固体,相对分子质量为80,E是天然气的主要成份,请回 答下列问题: (1)B是______,E是_____(均填化学式) (2)A→C的化学方程式为_________________________ E→D的化学方程式为_________________________ 若B→A是复分解反应,化学方程式为_________________________ 汞 H2O H2O2 Fe2O3 Fe3O4 CO CO2 KMnO4 K2MnO4 钨 银 钙 铁 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all­round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all­round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti­corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题一 推断题 已知:Cu2O是红色固体,难溶于水,与稀硫酸反应的化学方程式如下: Cu2O+H2SO4=Cu+CuSO4+H2O 若B→A是置换反应,在发生置换过程可能发生副反应生成Cu2O,产生为红色固体,其产物组 合可能有____种,小思同学称取14.4g产物与足量的稀硫酸充分反应后,经过滤,洗涤、干 燥,得到固体8.6g,则产物的成分为 ______________ 【思路点拨】: 已知B是黑色固体、相对分子质量为80,从所学的黑色固体主要有碳、氧化铜、二氧化 锰等,而这些物质中相对分子质量为80的只有氧化铜,E是天然气的主要成份,所以E是甲 烷,A通电能够分解,则A是水,B能够由C制得且C是水的分解产物,所以C是氧气,D是甲烷 反应的产物,所以D是二氧化碳(可由甲烷的燃烧制得也可由碳和氧气反应制得); (1)由分析知B是CuO,E是CH4; (2)A→C是水的电解过程,该反应的化学方程式为2H2O 2H2↑+O2↑;E→D是甲烷燃烧 的过程,化学方程式为CH4 +2O2 CO2 +2H2O,B→A属复分解反应时生成水,则该反应是氧 化铜和稀酸的反应,化学方程式可以是CuO+H2SO4=CuSO4+H2O; To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all­round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all­round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti­corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting co
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