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2015中考历史二轮复习专题六中国土地制度及农村政策的演变

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2015中考历史二轮复习 中国土地制度及农村政策的演变
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To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 历 史 初三历史中考第二轮专题复习 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题六 中国土地制度及农村政策的演变 一、中国古代史土地制度(政策): 1、井田制: 我国奴隶社会的土地国有制。它始于商朝,盛行于西周,瓦解于春秋,废除于战国。春秋 战国时期,由于铁器、牛耕的出现,生产力的发展,出现了私田,导致了井田制的崩溃。 (商鞅变法有“废井田、开阡陌”) (说明:分封制是奴隶社会的政治制度;井田制是其经济制度,但分封制是建立在井田制 基础之上的。分封制在秦始皇时为郡县制所取代。) 2、封建地主土地所有制: (1)确立:战国时期,铁器牛耕的出现,引发了社会变革。商鞅变法规定:“废井田,开 阡陌”,承认土地私有,允许土地自由买卖。商鞅变法标志着封建地主土地私有制的确立, 并成为中国古代土地制度的基本形态。 (2)影响:对中国封建经济的发展和繁荣起过积极作用,但其闭塞性和自给自足的特点 严重阻碍了商品经济的发展,尤其是阻碍了明清时期资本主义萌芽的发展,造成中国社会 的长期贫困和落后。 (3)废除:1950年新中国颁布《中华人民共和国土地改革法》,彻底废除了封建剥削的 土地所有制。 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 二、中国近代史土地政策: 孙中山的“民生主义”: 同盟会成立后,孙中山将其革命思想阐发为“民族、民权、民生”三大主义,其中“民生主义 ”的核心是“平均地权”,目的是要实现“耕者有其田”的理想。孙中山平均地权的理论从很大 程度上反映了中国广大农民对土地渴望之情,顺应了历史潮流,是巩固辛亥革命成果的一 个必要举措。但由于没有实践经验可循,仅仅是理论逻辑上的设想。 三、中国现代史土地制度(政策): 1、土地改革: (1)实行:新中国成立后,于1950年颁布了《中华人民共和国土地改革法》。它规定: 废除封建剥削的地主土地所有制,实行农民的土地所有制。(仍然是土地私有制) (2)结果:到1952年底,全国大陆基本完成土地改革。 (3)意义:彻底摧毁了我国存在两千多年的封建土地制度;农民翻了身,成为土地的主 人;巩固了人民政权;解放了农村生产力,为国家工业化建设准备了条件。 2、三大改造:(农业生产合作社)(1953—1957年) (1)原因:为了进一步提高农业生产力,逐步克服农业同工业发展不相适应的矛盾,中 共中央积极引导农民组织起来,走集体化道路。 专题六 中国土地制度及农村政策的演变 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform (2)形式:引导农民参加农业生产合作社,走农业合作化(集体化)的道路。(集体土 地公有制) (3)结果:1956年全国绝大多数农户参加了农业生产合作社。 (4)意义:是一场深刻的社会变革,是一次历史巨变,使中国农民走上了社会主义道路 , 使个体小农经济成为集体所有制经济,推动了农业生产的发展。 3、人民公社:(1958—1978年) (1)原因:在社会主义道路探索过程中,主观地认为农业合作化的规模越大,公有化程 度越高,就越能促进生产力发展。 (2)形式:以生产队为基本单位的全体社员共同所有、共同经营的农村经济管理格局。 (3)表现:高指标、瞎指挥、浮夸风、“共产风”、吃“大锅饭”等。 (4)核心:“一大二公”。(扩大公有化规模,提高公有化程度,实行平均主义,刮“共产 风”) (5)评价:是社会主义道路探索过程中的严重失误。严重脱离当时农村生产力水平;严 重挫伤了农民生产积极性,破坏了农业生产,使农村生产停滞不前。 专题六 中国土地制度及农村政策的演变 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 4、家庭联产承包责任制:(1978年—至今) (1)开始:1978年十一届三中全会以后,党和政府实行改革开放的政策。 (2)形式:家庭联产承包责任制(在公有制基础上,集体所有的土地长期包给农民使用 , 把农民的责、权、利紧密结合起来,即:“包产到户,自负盈亏”。)( 说明:“家庭联产承 包责任制”中,土地的所有权归集体,农民拥有土地的使用权。) (3)进程:安徽凤阳小岗村农民首先实行分田包产到户、自负盈亏,随后在中央指导下 逐步实行家庭联产承包为主的责任制; (4)发展:农村产业结构调整,乡镇企业迅速发展,为农村致富和实现现代化开辟了一 条新路。 (5)意义:农民生产积极性大大提高,农业生产连年丰收,农村开始富裕起来。 专题启示: 1、农业是国民经济的基础。 2、制定土地政策和农业政策,一定要从农民的利益出发,从调动农民的生产积极性出发 。 3、制定土地政策和农业政策,一定要从国情出发,从生产力发展的实际出发,实事求是 。 专题六 中国土地制度及农村政策的演变 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题训练: 一、我国是一个农业大国,拥有土地是农民孜孜以求的梦想。历史 上国共两党为解决农 民的土地问题都做出了很大的努力。结合所学知识,回答问题: (1)请观察小华设计的“建国以来土地政策和生产关系变化”示意图,分别写出A、D两个 阶段党和国家所采取的政策措施。 (2)在党和国家政策的法规指导下,B阶段生产资料的性质发生了怎样的变化? (3)1958年、1959年、1960年我国粮食总产量分别是:2亿吨、1.7亿吨、1.435亿吨,上 述数据说明了什么突出问题?据此谈谈你对C阶段政策措施的看法。 (4)从D阶段所采取的措施看,党和国家制度农村政策的出发点是什么?取得了怎样的 效果? (1)①土地改革, ②家庭联产承包责任制。 (2)由农民土地私有制变为社会主义公有制。 (3)①粮食产量逐年下降,②C阶段政策措施没有从农村生产力发展的实际出发 ,没有从农民的实际出发,损害了农民的生产积极性。 (4)从D阶段所采取的措施看,党和国家制度农村政策的出发点是:农村生产力 发展的实际和农民的根本利益,取得了很好的效果,农民的生产积极性空前高涨 ,粮食产量连年增加。 专题六 中国土地制度及农村政策的演变 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 二、农民,农业,农村,是中国改革与发展的重大问题,聚焦农业,关注民生。阅读下列 材料,回答问题。 材料一 下图反映的是中国共产党在不同时期的土地政策。 材料二 1958年,《人民日报》报道早稻亩产如下: 7月12日,福建闽侯城门乡公社,3275斤;7月18日,福建闽侯连板公社,5806斤;7月 31日,湖北应城春光公社,10597斤
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