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2015中考化学冲刺专题四催化剂的探究

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2015中考化学冲刺专题四 催化剂的探究 专题四催化剂的探究 中考化学冲刺 化学催化剂的 初中化学中考专题
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To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 化化 学学 第七部分 专题复习 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题四 催化剂的探究 [知识整理] 1.催化剂:能_____反应速率,而本身的质量______,化学性质_______.(一变两不变) (1) 能较低温度(或常温下)使化学反应速率发生最大的改变,经常通过产生气体的速率快慢 来判断. (2)质量不变: 经常通过把反应后的物质过滤、洗涤、干燥、________来判断. (3)化学性质不变: 经常通过把反应后的物质回收后重复做实验来判断 2.影响化学反应速率的其他因素 (1)溶液的浓度 (2)外界的温度 (3)催化剂种类等 [例题分析] [例1]带火星的小木条伸到盛有氧气的集气瓶中会________________ 。实验室常用KClO3和 MnO2混合加热来制取氧气,在此反应中MnO2起______________作用。 【思路点拨】本题考查氧气的检验方法和二氧化锰在用氯酸钾制氧气中的作用。 [解答]复燃;催化。 [例2]催化剂在生产、生活和科研中有着重要作用。实验室用过氧化氢分解制氧气,常用 MnO2作催化剂。 称量 改变 不变 不变 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题四 催化剂的探究 [提出问题]其他物质能作过氧化氢分解的催化剂吗? [猜想]甲同学认为CuO或Fe2O3可以代替MnO2,因为按物质的简单分类,MnO2、CuO、 Fe2O3都属于____________________________。 [设计实验]甲同学按下面步骤进行实验: ①在试管中加入5mL5%的过氧化氢溶液,把带火星的木条伸入试管; ②用精密的天平准确称量O.5 g Fe2O3红色粉末,并将其加入一试管中; ③在步骤②的试管中加入5mL5%的过氧化氢溶液,把带火星的木条伸入试管; ④待步骤③的试管中没有气泡后,进行“某一操作”将固体洗净,干燥、称量,得红色 固体的质量仍为0.5g。 [现象]甲同学观察到步骤①中的现象为______________,步骤③中带火星的木条复燃 。 [反思]步骤④中进行的“某一操作”是______________。乙同学认为在步骤④后还需增 加一个实验,请你写出该实验的操作方法_________________________ _。 [结论]通过以上实验步骤得出的结论是_______________________________。 请你举一生活中应用催化剂的事例____________________________________ To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题四 催化剂的探究 【思路点拨】要探究一种物质能否可作某一反应的催化剂,必须要根据催化剂概念中 的“一变、两不变”来设计实验。首先要证明该物质是否能加快这一反应速率;其次再证明 该物质的质量和化学性质在反应前后是否发生了改变。因此,甲同学设计了实验 ①②③④。可是甲同学设计的实验只能证明Fe2O3能加快过氧化氢分解的速率以及Fe2O3 在化学反应前后的质量没有变化,却没有证明Fe2O3在反应后的化学性质是否发生了改变, 故乙同学认为在步骤④后还应增加一个实验。 [解答]氧化物;带火星的木条没有复燃;过滤;把步骤④中的0.5g固体放入试管中,加入 5mL5%的过氧化氢溶液中,把带火星的木条伸入试管,观察到木条复燃;Fe2O3可作这个反 应的催化剂;人们消化吸收食物要靠酶的催化作用来完成。 强化训练: A组 1、在用氯酸钾制氧气的过程中,添加少量二氧化锰的作用是( ) A、 增加氧气的生成量 B、可节省氯酸钾的用量 C、使氯酸钾在较低温度下迅速放出氧气 D、减慢氯酸钾的分解速率 2.下列有关催化剂的说法正确的是( ) A、二氧化锰是氯酸钾的催化剂 B、催化剂只能加快化学反应的速率 C、催化剂并不参加化学反应 D、催化剂在反应前后质量和化学性质保持不变 D C To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题四 催化剂的探究 3. 研究表明,许多金属氧化物对氯酸钾的分解有催化作用。分别用下列金属氧化物 作催化剂,氯酸钾开始发生分解反应和反应剧烈时的温度如下表所示: (1)实验室用氯酸钾制取氧气,如果不用二氧化锰作催化剂,最好选用_______(填序号 ) A. 氧化铁 B. 氧化铝 C. 氧化铜 D. 氧化镁 (2)实验室用氯酸钾制取氧气时,______(填“能”或“不能”)用实验室中高锰酸钾加热 制取氧气的实验装置 (3)实验室用氯酸钾制取氧气时若用二氧化锰作催化剂,反应前后二氧化锰的质量 _______(填序号) A. 不变 B. 变大 C. 变小 D. 可能变大也可能变小 (4)实验室加热氯酸钾制氧气时,忘记加入二氧化锰,其结果是( ) A. 不能产生氧气 B. 生成氧气的速度慢 C. 产生氧气的总量减少 D. 没有氯化钾生成 B A C 能 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题四 催化剂的探究 4、(2013.昆明市)人教版新课标化学教材九年级上册(2012教育部审定)“分解过氧化 氢制氧气的反应中二氧化锰的催化作用”,以及“寻找新的催化剂”研究性实验,引起了化 学探究小组的兴趣。 【提出问题】氧化铁能否作过氧化氢溶液分解的催化剂?如果能,其催化效果如何? 【实验探究】 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题四 催化剂的探究 【实验结论】 (1)A中产生的气体是 ; (2)实验II、III证明:氧化铁的 和 在反应前后均没有发生变化,可以作过氧 化氢分解的催化剂; (3)写出氧化铁催化过氧化氢分解的化学方程式 。 【实验评价】 实验设计IV的目的是 ; 若实验IV观察到D试管中产生气泡的速率更快,由此你可以得到的结论是 。 【实验拓展】 查阅资料得知,CuO、CuSO4、、、猪肝、马铃薯等也可以做过氧化氢溶液分解的催化剂。 下列有关催化剂的说法中正确的是 (填序号)。 A. MnO2只能作过
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