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2015中考化学冲刺专题三 金属回收与废水处理

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金属回收与废水处理 中考化学专题
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To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 化化 学学 第七部分 专题复习 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题三 金属回收与废水处理 [知识整理] 工业废水常含有AgNO3、Cu(NO3)2等贵重金属元素,处理方法: (1)一般加入 ,使金属Ag和Cu完全置换出来. (2)在AgNO3、Cu(NO3)2:混合溶液中加入铁粉,铁粉首先置换活动动性较弱的金属 ;然后,如果铁粉有剩,才置换金属 . [例题分析] [例1] :实验结束时,同学们将含有CuSO4、ZnSO4、FeSO4的废液倒在废液缸里,如果将废 液直接排放就会造成水污染。于是几位同学利用课余处理废液,回收工业重要原料硫酸 锌和有关金属。实验过程如下: 请回答: (1)滤液A和滤液B含有相同的溶质,其名称是 ;固体B的化学式为 。 Zn或 Fe Ag Cu To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题三 金属回收与废水处理 (2)写出步骤①其中一个反应的化学方程式 ;步骤④发生反应的 化学方程式为 。 (3)要检验步骤④中加入的稀硫酸是否足量的方法是 。 (4)若实验过程中的物质损失可以忽略,要计算该废液中硫酸锌的质量分数,必须称量 :废液的质量和 。 【思路点拨】 本题根据废水处理流程图进行推断,过量锌粉与CuSO4、ZnSO4、FeSO4废液反应,A为 ZnSO4,B也是硫酸锌,①的一个反应可以是锌与CuSO4、FeSO4两者之一的置换,固体C为 锌铜混合物,硫酸只与混合物中的锌反应,步骤④中加入的稀硫酸足量的目的是除尽锌 粉,应该在滤渣中加入稀硫酸,根据质量守恒定律可以解决最后一问。 [解答](1)硫酸锌 Fe (2)Zn+CuSO4 =ZnSO4 +Cu 或Zn+ FeSO4== ZnSO4+ Fe Zn+H2SO4 =ZnSO4 +H2↑(3)取步骤④的滤渣于试管中加入少量稀硫酸,若有气泡产生则 酸不足量(或若无气泡产生,则酸已足量) (4)硫酸锌的质量、锌粉的质量[或硫酸锌 、固体B、固体C、铜的质量] To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题三 金属回收与废水处理 [例2] (2009肇庆)兴趣小组的同学在开展“废物利用、减少污染”的活动中,取某工厂合金 废料(含铝、铁、铜)进行如下实验: (1)操作Ⅰ的名称是 ;该操作需用到的铁制仪器为 。 (2)固体A的成分是 ;操作Ⅱ反应的化学方程式为 。 (3)黑色固体C加适量稀硫酸反应的方程式为 。 (4)图中由含铝的钠盐制备氯化铝有两种途径,你认为合理的途径是 (填:“Ⅰ”或“Ⅱ” ),理由是 。 【思路点拨】 由操作Ⅰ是分离固体和液体,所以是过滤,过滤所需的铁制仪器是铁架台等支持仪器。由 逆推方法可得出固体A的成分和操作Ⅱ反应,黑色固体C加适量稀硫酸反应比固体A的成分 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题三 金属回收与废水处理 得出更易,图中由含铝的钠盐制备氯化铝有两种途径哪一条合理不容易判断,因为金属与 碱反应,含铝的钠盐与足量的盐酸反应,都没有学过,有很多同学就无法往下做题,但这 里不需要以上知识,只要能从质量守恒定律,化学反应元素种类不变就可判断。 [解答]:(1)过滤 铁架台(带铁圈)、或三角架 (2)铁、铜(或Fe、Cu) Fe + H2SO4 = FeSO4 + H2↑ (3)CuO + H2SO4 = CuSO4 +H2O (4)Ⅱ 途径Ⅱ没有引入新的杂质,得到的是纯净的氯化铝溶液(或途径Ⅰ引入的杂质钠 盐,得到的氯化铝不是纯净。合理表述均给分。) 强化训练:A组 1.(2012.北京市)金属在生产和生活中有广泛的应用。 (1)下列金属制品中,利用金属导电性的是_____(填字母序号)。C To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题三 金属回收与废水处理 (2)铁制品在沙漠地区不易锈蚀的原因是___________。 (3)工业上用一氧化碳和赤铁矿炼铁反应的化学方程式为____________。 (4)某厂排放的废水中含有硫酸铜,将废水处理可得到铜和铁红(氧化铁)两种产品。 过程如下图所示(废水中的其他物质不参与反应); 过程①中发生反应的化学方程式为________ _。 A-G七种物质中含铁元素的有___________(填字母代号)。 2、(2011肇庆)氯化钙是多用途的干燥剂和建筑防冻剂。实验室里用石灰石和盐酸制备二 氧化碳的含酸废液(含有MgCl2、FeCl3等)通过以下途径制得无水氯化钙。 (1)操作I的名称为 ,操作II的名称为 。滤渣的化学成分有 。 没有水分 3CO+Fe2O3 2Fe+3CO2 A、B、C、E、G 过滤冷却结晶或结晶 Mg(OH)2、Fe(OH)3, 多写Ca(OH)2不扣分 ) To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题三 金属回收与废水处理 (2)石灰乳的作用是① ,② ,写出其中1个反 应的化学方程式 。 3.(2011.河南省)在Cu(NO3) 2、A1(NO3) 3和AgNO3伍的混合溶液中加入一定量的铁粉,充 分反应后过滤,向滤出的固体上滴加稀硫酸时有气泡产生。则反应后所得溶液中含有的金 属离子有 ;反应后溶液的质量比原混合溶液的质量 (填“大”或“小”);有关反应的 化学方程式为 (写出一个即可)。 4.(2014•茂名)某沿海工业区排放的污水中含有少量的Fe2+,Na+,Ca2+,Cu2+,Cl﹣,为 了达到零污染的目标,将污水进行如下工业流程处理: (1)步骤Ⅰ的操作名称是 ,并写出步骤Ⅰ中的化学方程式
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