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2015中考化学冲刺基础知识荟萃复习课件

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中考化学总复习
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To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all­round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all­round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti­corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 化化 学学 作 业 本 第七部分 专题复习 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all­round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all­round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti­corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 基础知识荟萃 1、常见金属的活动性顺序如下: 意义:金属与酸的置换、金属与盐溶液的置换,都是较强(左边)的金属单质把较弱(右 边)的金属(或氢)从它的盐溶液(或稀酸)中置换出来 2、常见物质颜色 固 体 ①黑色: 铁粉、木炭、氧化铜、二氧化锰、 四氧化三铁; ②红色:铜、氧化铁;③蓝色:氢氧化铜、硫酸铜晶体;④淡黄色:硫磺 ⑤暗紫色固体:高锰酸钾 溶 液 ①紫色:石蕊试液、高锰酸钾溶液;②蓝色:含有Cu2+的溶液;③浅绿色:含有Fe2+溶 液;④黄色含有Fe3+溶液;⑤红色:石蕊遇酸、酚酞遇碱 沉 淀 白色沉淀:AgCl↓、 BaSO4↓ 不溶于酸; 白色沉淀:CaCO3↓、 BaCO3↓ 、Ag2CO3↓ 能溶酸,伴有气泡产生. 白色沉淀:Mg(OH)2↓、Al(OH)3↓能溶于酸;无气泡产生。 蓝色沉淀:Cu(OH)2↓;红褐色沉淀Fe(OH)3↓能溶于酸;无气泡产生。 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all­round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all­round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti­corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 基础知识荟萃 3、常见化合价口诀:钾钠银氢铵正一价,钙镁钡锌铜汞正二,亚铁正二铁正三,铝元素 是正三价,氟氯负一、氧负二,负一氢氧硝酸根,负二硫酸碳酸根,单质零价要记住。 4、一些混合物的主要成份: 天然气 沼气 铁锈 赤铁矿 石灰石 大理石 双氧水煤 CH4Fe2­O3CaCO3H2O2C 1­20号元素是:H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca 5、常见物质的俗名和化学式: 俗名干 冰 水 银 生石灰熟石灰 消石灰 纯碱 苏打 小苏打盐酸食盐烧碱 火碱 苛性钠 化学式 CO2 Hg CaO Ca(OH )2Na2­CO3 NaHC­O3 HClNaCl NaOH 6、酸碱盐溶解性口诀:①初中酸全溶;②碱溶有四种:钾钠钙钡可溶碱③盐:钾钠铵 硝溶水快,盐酸盐不溶氯化银,硫酸盐不溶硫酸钡,碳酸盐可溶钾钠铵。 7、离子相互不共存:Cl­和Ag+; HCO3­ 和H+; CO32­ 和H+、Ca2+、Ba2+; OH­和H+、Cu2+、Fe3+、 Mg2+、NH4+ To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all­round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all­round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti­corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 基础知识荟萃 8.常见物质在氧气中燃烧时主要现象: (1)木炭:在氧气中燃烧发白光,放热,生成无色使澄清石灰水变浑浊的气体。 (2)硫磺:在氧气中燃烧产生蓝紫色火焰,放热,生成有刺激性气味的无色气体。 (3)红磷:在氧气中燃烧产生大量白烟,放热,生成白色固体。 (4)镁条:在氧气中燃烧产生耀眼白光,放热,生成白色固体。 (5)铁丝:在氧气中剧烈燃烧、火星四射、放热,生成黑色固体。 (6)蜡烛:在氧气中燃烧发白光,放热,有水珠,生成无色使澄清石灰水变浑浊的气体。 (7)氢气:在氧气中燃烧产生淡蓝色火焰,放热,罩上干冷烧杯有水珠。 (8)一氧化碳:在氧气中燃烧产生蓝色火焰,放热,生成无色使澄清石灰水变浑浊的气体。 (9)甲烷:在氧气中燃烧产生蓝色火焰,放热,有水珠,生成无色使澄清石灰水变浑浊气体 。 9.物质的检验: (1)用 燃着的木条 放在瓶口,若木条燃烧更旺盛的是02,木条立即熄灭的是C02、N2,但倒 入澄清石灰水变浑浊的是C02,无现象的是N2; (2)用 燃着的木条 放在瓶口,点燃气体,罩上干冷烧杯,只有水珠的是H2.;有水珠并生成能 使澄清石灰水变浑浊的气体的是CH4;无水珠,生成使澄清石灰水变浑浊的气体是CO2 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all­round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all­round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti­corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 基础知识荟萃 (3)碳酸盐的检验。(CO3­ 2­的检验,:取少量该溶液,滴加稀盐酸,并把产生的气体通入澄清 石灰水中。现象:有气泡产生; 澄清石灰水变浑浊。 (4)盐酸及可溶性盐酸盐(Cl­的检验):取少量该溶液,滴加硝酸银溶液和稀硝酸;现象有 白色沉淀生成; (5)硫酸及可溶性硫酸盐(S042­的检验):取少量溶液,滴加硝酸钡镕液和稀硝酸;现象有 白色沉淀生成; (6)铵盐的检验(NH4+的检验):取下少量该溶液,滴加浓氢氧化钠溶液后, 有刺激性气味 产生。 (7)要测定溶液的酸性或碱性一般用 紫色石蕊 、 无色酚酞 ;要测定溶液的酸性或碱性的强 弱程度,一般用 pH试纸 ; (8)硬水与软水的区别试剂是用 肥皂水; 10、物质的除杂: (1)、CO2(CO):把气体通过灼热的氧化铜 ; (2)、CO(CO2):通过足量的氢氧化钠溶液; (3)、H2(水蒸气):通过浓硫酸、通过氢氧化钠固体; To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all­round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all­round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti­corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 基础知识荟萃 (4)、Cu(Fe):加入足量的稀硫酸; (5)、CuO(C):在空气中(在氧气流中)灼烧混合物; (6)、Cu(CuO):加入足量的稀硫酸; (7)、FeSO4(CuSO4):加入足量的铁粉 ; (8)、NaCl(Na2CO3):加 入适量的盐酸; (9)、NaCl(Na2SO4):加入适量的氯化钡溶液; (10)、NaCl(NaOH):加入适量的盐酸; (11)、NaOH(Na2CO3):加入适量的氢氧化钙溶液; (12)、NaNO3(NaCl):加入适量的硝酸银溶液 (13)、NaCl(CuSO4):加入适量的氢氧化钡溶液 ; (14)、CO2(水蒸气):通过浓硫酸; (15)、KNO3(NaCl):冷却热饱和溶液。 11、常考化学方程式: 化合反应 (1)铁在氧气中燃烧:3Fe + 2O2点燃Fe3O4 (2)氢气在氧气中燃烧:2H2 + O2点燃2H2O To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all­round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all­round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti­corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 基础知识荟萃 (3)红磷在氧气中燃烧:4P + 5O2点燃2P2O5 (4)碳在氧气中充分燃烧:C + O2 点燃CO2 (5)碳在氧气中不充分燃烧:2C + O2 点燃2CO (6)二氧化碳通过灼热碳层: C + CO2高温2CO (7)一氧化碳在氧气中燃烧:2CO + O2 点燃2CO2 (8)二氧化碳和水反应:CO2 + H2O =H2CO3 (9)生石灰溶于水:CaO + H2O =Ca(OH)2 分解反应 (1)实验室用双氧水制氧气: 2H2O2 MnO2(催化剂)2H2O+ O2↑ (2)加热高锰酸钾: 2KMnO4 加热 K2MnO4 + MnO2
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