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2015中考历史冲刺二轮复习课件 专题八 中外交往

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中考历史总复习冲刺 中考历史总复习冲刺课件 中外交往课件 中考历史复习 历史二轮复习
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To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 历 史 初三历史中考第二轮专题复习 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题八 中外交往 一、古代史:中外交往: 1、丝绸之路:西汉时,张骞通西域,为丝绸之路的开辟创造了条件。路线:从长安往西, 经河西走廊、今新疆境内,到中亚、西亚、南亚,直到欧洲。意义:成为古代东西方经济 文化交流的桥梁。 2、唐朝的对外交往: ①唐朝和日本的关系:遣唐使;唐玄宗时,鉴真东渡日本传播唐朝文化,日本的建筑、文字、 风俗、制度深受唐朝影响。 ②唐朝和新罗的关系:新罗在今朝鲜半岛 ③唐朝和天竺的关系:天竺即今天印度半岛各国。唐太宗时,玄奘西行,著《大唐西域记 》.玄奘是中印文化交流使者. 3、明朝的对外交往: ①郑和下西洋:1405—1433年,郑和七次下西洋,最远到达非洲东海岸和红海沿岸,是 世界航海史上的壮举。 ②戚继光抗倭:戚继光组织“戚家军”,平息了东南沿海的倭寇(日本的武士、商人和海 盗),是民族英雄。 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题八 中外交往 4、清朝的对外交往: ①郑成功从荷兰殖民者手中收回台湾。后清政府设台湾府,隶属福建省。 ②雅克萨之战:康熙帝两次指挥雅克萨之战,打败沙俄,签订平等的《尼布楚条约》。 ③清朝实行闭关锁国的外交政策,导致中国落伍于世界。(仅留广州一地为对外窗口) 补充:郑和下西洋和新航路的开辟(记忆粗体字部分) 航海家年 代到达地点 郑郑 和1405-1433最远远到达非洲东东海岸和红红海一带带(航行于太平洋和印度洋) 迪亚士1487到达好望角 达·伽 马 1497到达印度西海岸 哥伦伦布1492 发现发现 美洲,到达美洲的古巴、海地、巴哈马马群岛岛,把当地人成 为为“印第安人” 麦哲伦伦1520-1522环环球航行(证证明地球是圆圆的) To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题八 中外交往 时间对比:郑和下西洋比欧洲的新航路开辟早半个多世纪。 技术规模对比:郑和下西洋在船只、人数、航海技术上都远远超过新航路开辟。 目的对比:郑和下西洋的目的是宣扬国威和到西洋取宝,新航路开辟的目的是寻找和掠夺 财富。 结果对比:郑和下西洋促进了明朝与30多个国建和地区的经济文化交流;新航路开辟:一 场持续数百年的殖民掠夺、殖民侵略、殖民扩张从此拉开了序幕。使世界连为一个整体, 促进了欧洲资本主义的发展。 二、近代史:中外交往 1、鸦片战争(中英)、第二次鸦片战争(中英法)、甲午战争(中日)、八国联军侵华 战争,中国战败,签订了一系列不平等条约,使中国逐步沦为半殖民地半封建社会。 2、巴黎和会: ①中国代表提出取消外国在中国的一切特权,废除“二十一条”等,遭到和会拒绝。 ②会议决定将德国在山东侵占的一切权益转给日本。中国外交失败,引发1919年5月4日 的五四爱国运动。 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题八 中外交往 3、华盛顿会议:1921—1922年,美、英、法、日、意、中等九国在华盛顿举行会议。 1922年,与会九国签署了《九国公约》,公约宣称尊重中国提出的主权和独立、领土和行 政的完整;保证各国在华“机会均等”、“门户开放”。阻止了日本独霸中国的计划,使中国 回到几个帝国主义国家共同支配的局面。 4、1937—1945年抗日战争的胜利,扭转了100多年来中国人民反抗外国侵略的屡败局面, 洗刷了民族耻辱,是中华民族由衰败到振兴的转折点。 三、新中国外交: 1、新中国50年代外交: ①和平共处五项原则:周恩来与印度、缅甸总理共同倡导,成为处理国与国关系的基本 准则。内容:互相尊重领土主权、互不侵犯、互不干涉内政、平等互惠、和平共处。 ②万隆会议:周恩来提出“求同存异”方针。 2、新中国70年代外交: ①1971年,第26届联合国大会通过提案,恢复中华人民共和国在联合国的合法权利。 ②1972年,中日建交。 ③1972年,尼克松访华,在上海签署了《中美联合公报》(中美关系开始走正常化) ④1979年,中美正式建交。 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题八 中外交往 3、新中国70年代以后外交: ①1991年,中国加入亚太经合组织(APEC);2001年,中国承办亚太经合组织会议 ②2001年,中国加入世界贸易组织(WTO)。 四、中美关系 1、19世纪中期到19世纪末:美国追随英法侵华,如参加第二次鸦片战争、八国联军侵华 战争 2、20世纪初:与日本在华进行争夺。美国不满“一战”以来日本独霸中国,在华盛顿会议 上签署《九国公约》,实质上为美国在中国的扩张提供了方便,对中国的影响:使中国回 复到几个帝国主义国家共同支配的局面。 3、“二战”时期:中美均为世界反法西斯联盟成员国。 4. 1945-1949年:美国推行“扶蒋反共”政策。 5、新中国成立初:新中国成立宣告美国“扶蒋反共”政策彻底失败。美国敌视新中国,对 新中国实行外交孤立、封锁禁运、包围威胁的敌对政策。 6、20世纪70年代:中美关系走向正常化。1972年,美国总统尼克松访华,中美在上海发 表了《中美联合公报》。1979年,中美建立起正式外交关系。 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessions, I have a profound awareness that the key to the prosperity and development of the country lies in the Party, and the key to the all-round rejuvenation of the nation lies in education. The two sessions were held on March 3, and the two sessions have attracted much attention. The Congress of democracy, unity, harmony, and pragmatism has determined the work of economic and social development in 2018, which is of great significance for further promoting scientific development, promoting social harmony, and continuously opening up a new situation for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the most important political task before us is to concentrate on the two Will spirit study well, carry out well. Reform is still the focus of this year's “two sessions.“ Our party should continue to deepen the reform in an all-round way and unswervingly go on, and promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance ability, which requires the Party to improve its governing ability and efficiency and raise its work level. The anti-corruption issue is also the focus of more efforts, because in the past year, our country has made great progress on the road of fighting corruption and promoting integrity, and has cracked down on many corrupt officials. To those who do not wholeheartedly for the welfare of the people of the government personnel heavy blow and warning. And it is precisely because of the vigorous administration of the party and the state that some public funds eat and drink. Corruption and other phenomena have mostly disappeared, so this year's deep reform 专题八 中外交往 7、影响中美关系的因素 ①不利因素: A、美国插手中国领土和主权纷争,插手台湾问题、美国对台军售。 B、美国干涉中国内政,无端指责中国的人权和民主建设,支持达赖集团的藏独等。 C、美国推行霸权主义政策,散布中国威胁论。 ②有利因素: A、中国综合国力的增强,国际地位不断提高,在政治多极化中发挥着重要的作用。 B、中国经济高速增长,是经济全球化中的重要市场。 8. 中美关系发展历史的启示: ①中美两国和则两利,斗则俱伤。 ②中美两国有合作的基础和共同的利益。 ③中美合作有利于亚太地区的稳定,也有利于世界的和平与发展。 五、中日关系 1.古代中日关系 ①日本大化改新向中国隋唐学习。 ②唐朝时:日本有十多批遣唐使来到中国、鉴真东渡日本传播唐朝文化。 To study and implement the spirit of the two sessions is the primary political task of the educators in 2018. Through the study of the spirit of the two sessio
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