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【医学PPT课件】人体内环境稳态

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医学PPT课件 稳态ppt课件 人体内环境稳态ppt 人体内环境稳态 人体 内环境 稳态 ppt 课件
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Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 必修1:分子与细胞 在细胞水平上认识 生命系统的物质基础和结构基础; 必修2:遗传与进化 在基因水平认识生 命系统的发生和发展; 必修3:稳态与环境 在个体和群体水 平认识生命系统内部的调节机制以及与环境的 关系. 第1节 细胞生活的环境 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 问题探讨 1、最基本的生命系统是什么? 2、图1和图2中各是什么细胞?请说出细胞的名称 。 3、它们分别生活在什么样的环境中?两者的生活 环境有何不同? 图1图2 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 1、体液——人体体内都含有大量以水为基础的液 体,这些液体统称为体液。 体液 细胞内液:存在于细胞内,约占2/3。 细胞外液 (存在于细胞外,约占1/3) 组织液 血浆 淋巴等 GO 一、体内细胞生活在细胞外液中 什么是体液?体液的成分和组成是什么 ? Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 血 浆 血 细 胞 红细胞 白细胞 血小板 观察血液的组成 白细胞 红细胞 血小板 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 细胞外液是 指存在于细胞 外的体液,包 括血浆、组织 液和淋巴等。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 2、组织液、血浆、淋巴之间的关系 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 3、内环境概念的内涵 内环境与细胞外液是同一概念。内环境是相对 于外界环境提出,细胞外液是相对于动物和人 的细胞内液提出的。 主要包括组织液、血浆和淋巴,但不是说就只 有这三种。例如,脑脊液也属于内环境组成成 分。 人的呼吸道、肺泡腔、消化道等属于人体与外 界相通的环境,因而汗液、尿液、消化液、泪 液等液体不属于内环境的组成。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. CO2和代谢废物 血浆组织液 淋巴 双向渗透 组 织 细 胞 O2和营养物质 单向渗透 淋巴循环 血浆、组织液、淋巴之间的关系 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 二、细胞外液的成分 成 分 含 量 成 分 含 量 水 90、7 卵磷脂 0、2 血清白蛋白 4、4 胆固醇 0、22 血清球蛋白 2、1 Na+ 0、38 纤维纤维 蛋白原 0、4 K + 0、02 氨基酸氮 0、005 Ca2+ 0、01 尿素氮 0、012 Mg2+ 0、0035 其他非蛋白氮 0、025 Fe 2+ 0、0001 葡萄糖 0、08 Cl- 0、36 乳酸 0、025 HPO42- 0、01 各种脂肪酸 0、38 SO42- 0、001 脂肪 0、14 HCO3- 0、17 蛋白质 无机盐离子 脂质 脂质 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 细胞外液的成分 n水 血浆中含有90%~92%的水 n气体 其中以氧和二氧化碳最为重要 n各种无机离子 其中以Na+,Cl- ,K+,Ca2+,HCO-和HPO42-的量较多 n有机化合物 如脂质、氨基酸、葡萄糖、维 生素等。 n调节生命活动的各种激素 n细胞代谢的废物 如氨、尿素等。 组织液和淋巴与血浆主要的差别是:蛋白 质含量很少 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 三、细胞外液的渗透压和酸碱度 1、渗透压——溶液中溶质微粒对水的吸引力。 血浆渗透压的大小与无机盐、蛋白质的含量有关 2、酸碱度——血浆的pH为7.35~7.45。 3、温度——细胞外液温度一般维持在37℃左右 。 4、无机盐在细胞外液中的作用: ①维持细胞外液渗透压。Na+、Cl-是维持细胞外液 渗透压的主要离子。 ②维持细胞外液的酸碱平衡:HCO3-、HPO42- Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 组织水肿是由于组织液渗透压相对升高造成的 主要原因包括以下几个方面: ①过敏反应中组织胺释放引起毛细血管壁通透性 增强,血浆蛋白进入组织液,使其浓度升高,吸 水造成水肿 ②毛细淋巴管受阻,组织液中大分子物质蛋白质 不能回流至毛细血管而导致组织液浓度升高。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. ③组织细胞代谢旺盛,代谢产物增加时,引起组 织液浓度升高。 ④营养不良时,血浆蛋白或细胞内蛋白质减少, 使血浆浓度降低或细胞内液浓度下降,水分进入 组织液。 ⑤肾小球炎,使血浆蛋白随尿液排出体外,血浆 浓度下降,吸水能力降低 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 四、内环境是细胞与外界进行物质交换的媒介 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 细胞直接与内环境进行物质交换,内环境再 通过消化系统、呼吸系统、循环系统、泌尿 系统等与外界环境进行物质交换 外外 环环 境境 体体 内内 细细 胞胞 食食 物物 消化系统消化系统 O2 呼吸系统 皮肤、泌尿 系统 尿素等 CO2 内环境内环境 循循 环环 系系 统统 血液循环血液循环 淋巴循环淋巴循环 组组 织织 液液 血浆血浆 淋巴淋巴 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 体外 内环境 体外 细胞 体外体外 呼吸 系统 消化系统 泌尿系统 皮肤 营养物质 营养物质 代谢废物 O2 CO2 代谢废物 代谢废物 O2 CO2 重吸收 B A C D 课堂小结: Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 泌尿系统 每个肾脏是由120万个肾单位组成的,一共有 240万个肾单位。肾单位由肾小体和肾小管组成 ,肾小体又包括肾小球,肾小囊。 血液流经肾小球时,血液中的尿酸、尿素、 水、无机盐和葡萄糖等物质通过肾小球和肾小囊 内壁的过滤作用,过滤到肾小囊中,形成原尿。 当尿液流经肾小管时,原尿中对人体有用的全部 葡萄糖、大部分水和部分无机盐,被肾小管重新 吸收,回到肾小管周围毛细血管的血液里。原尿 经过肾小管的重吸收作用,剩下的水和无机盐、 尿素和尿酸等就形成了尿液。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 1、直接参与物质交换的系统 ①消化系统:将食物消化吸收进入内环境。 ②呼吸系统:使O2进入内环境,使CO2由内环 境排出体外。 ③循环系统:运输各种营养物质和代谢废物。 ④排泄系统:将各种代谢产物排出体外。 2、细胞通过内环境同外界进行物质交换 细胞 代谢废物 内环境 代谢废物 外环境 营养物质营养物质 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. P5思考与讨论提示: 1.Na+和Cl-等直接来自于食物,不需要经过 消化可以直接被吸收。葡萄糖、氨基酸等物质主 要来自于食物中的糖类和蛋白质。糖类和蛋白质 是两类大分子物质,必须经过消化系统的消化, 分解为葡萄糖和氨基酸才能被吸收。上述物质在 小肠内经主动运输进入小肠绒毛内的毛细血管中 ,经血液循环运输到全身各处的毛细血管中,再 通过物质交换过程进入组织液和淋巴。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 2.细胞代谢产生的CO2与H2O结合,在碳酸 酐酶作用下,发生下列反应: CO2+H2O H2CO3 H++HCO3-。 HCO3-通过与细胞外的阴离子交换到达细胞外液 ,即组织液、血浆或淋巴中。 主要与呼吸系统有关。 3.人体具有体温调节机制以保持细胞外液温 度的恒定。详细内容可参考教材第2章关于人体体 温调节的内容。参与体温调节的器官和系统有皮 肤、肝脏、骨骼肌、神经系统、内分泌系统、呼 吸系统等。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 4.体内细胞产生的代谢废物主要通过皮肤分 泌汗液,泌尿系统形成、排出尿液和呼吸系统的 呼气这三条途径来排出,其中以泌尿系统和呼吸 系统的排泄途径为主。 例如,血浆中的尿素主要通过肾脏形成的尿 液排出体外。血浆中的CO2通过肺动脉进入肺泡周 围的毛细血管,由于血液中的CO2分压大于肺泡中 CO2的分压,CO2就从血液中向肺泡扩散,再通过 呼气运动将其排出体外。 Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 练一练 1、对内环境的论述正确的是( ) A、内环境指的是人体内的体液 B、内环境指的是细胞外液 C、内环境指的是细胞内液 D、内环境指的是组织液、血液和淋巴 B Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 2、下列属于哺乳动物和人的内环境的是( ) A、肺泡腔内的气体 B、小肠腔内的消化液 C、心室腔内的血浆 D、膀胱腔内的尿液 3、在下列物质中,不属于人体内环境组织 成分的是( ) A、血红蛋白 B、葡萄糖 C、二氧化碳和氧 D、氨基酸 C A Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 4、通过内环境人体内的细胞与外界环境进行 物质交换的直接相关的系统有( ) ①呼吸 ②消化 ③神经 ④循环 ⑤泌尿 ⑥内分 泌 ⑦运动 A、 ① ② ④ ⑤ B、 ① ② ③ ④ C、 ① ② ④ ⑥ D、 ② ④ ⑤ ⑦ 5、人体内氧分压最低的部位是( ) A、肺泡内 B、血液内 C、组织液内 D、组织细胞内 A D Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 6.细胞外液的主要阳离子是( ) A.Fe2+ B.K+ C.Na+ D.Ca2+ 7.下列哪项不是由人体内环境成分明显变 化引起的病症( ) A.浮肿 B.手足抽搐 C.贫血 D.尿毒症 C C Through this publicity campaign, further improve the sense of business integrity of tourism enterprises to help tourism consumers and operators to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests, to ensure that our City's tourism sustainable, healthy and coordinated Development. 下图为人体内细胞与内环境之间物质交换的示意图, 据图分析: (1)毛细血管壁细胞具体的内环境是 。(填标号 ) (2)某人喝入大量的食醋后是否会引起内环境中的pH值明显 下降? ,原因是图中标号 内存在 着 物质。 (3)某人皮肤烫伤后,出现了水泡,该水泡内的液体主要是 指图中的 标号 。 ②和③ 不会 缓冲 ② ③
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