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英语基本句型 英语基本句型1 英语常用句型1
英语句子的基本句型 句子种类两种分类法 l按句子的用途可分四种: l1)陈述句(肯定、否定): lHe is six years old. l2)疑问句(一般、特殊、选择、反意): Do they like skating? How old is he? Mary can swim, can’t she? l3)祈使句:Be careful, boys. Don’t talk in class. l4)感叹句:How clever the boy is! 按句子的结构可分三种: l1)简单句: l2) 并列句: l3)复合句: l1)简单句:只有一个主语(或 并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列 谓语)。 le.g. He often reads English in the morning. lTom and Mike are American boys. lShe likes drawing and often draws pictures for the wall newspapers. l我们可以给句子的动词加上副词修饰,给 名词加上形容词、介词短语修饰,给句子 加上状语进行修饰等,以使整个句子的意 思变得更加的丰富和充实。但不管如何变 ,都只有一个主谓结构。 lHe worked hard all his life. (划线部分在 句中作状语,修饰动词worked) lHe is a school student in No. 1 Middle School. (划线部分在句中作定语,修饰名 词student) l2) 并列句: l句型:简单句+并列连词+简单句 l 并列句是由两个或两个以上的简单句 连接而成。并列句中的各简单句意义 同等重要,相互之间没有从属关系, 是平行并列的关系。它们之间用连词 连结。 le.g. You help him and he helps you. lThe future is bright; the road is tortuous. 并列句的分类 l1、表示连接两个同等概念,常用and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then等连接。 le.g. The teacher’s name is Smith, and the student’s name is John. l2、表示选择,常用的连词有or, either…or…, otherwise等。 e.g. Hurry up, or you’ll miss the train. l3、表示转折,常用的连词有but, still, yet, while, when等。 le.g. He was a little man with thick glasses, but he had a strange way of making his classes lively and interesting. l4、表示因果关系,常用的连词有so, for, 等。 le.g. August is the time of the year for rive harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark. 3)复合句:含有一个或一个以上从句的 句子。 从句包括名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从 句、表语从句和同位语从句) 定语从句和状语从句等。 句型 主句+连词+从句;或连词+从句+主句 le.g. The foreign visitors took a lot of pictures when they were at the Great Wall. l1. We often study Chinese history on Friday afternoon. l2. The boy who offered me his seat is called Tom. l3. There is a chair in this room, isn’t there? 简单句 复合句 简单句 4. He is in Class One and I am in Class Two. 5. He was fond of drawing when he was yet a child. 6. My brother and I go to school at half past seven in the morning and come back home at seven in the evening. 并列句 复合句 简单句 7. Neither has he changed his mind, nor will he do so. 8. What he said at the meeting is very important, isn’t it? 9. The farmer is showing the boy how to plant a tree. 10. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music. 并列句 复合句 简单句 简单句 英语句子有长在短,有简有繁,从现象看,似乎千变万 化,难以捉摸,但从实质看,可以发现其内在联系,找出其 共同规律。英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及 其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握 各种英语句子结构的基础。 英语五种基本句型列式如下: 基本句型一: S +V (主+谓) 基本句型二: S +link-V +P (主+系+表) 基本句型三: S +V +O (主+谓+宾) 基本句型四: S +V +IO +O(主+谓+间宾+直宾) 基本句型五: S +V +O +C(主+谓+宾+宾补) 基本句型 一 SS + +V(主+谓)V(主+谓) 此句型的句子有一个共同特 点,即句子的谓语动词都能表达 完整的意思。 这类动词叫做不及物动词, 后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状 语从句等。 SV (不及物动词动词 ) 1. Time 2. The moon 3. The man 4. We all 5. Everybody 6. I 7. They 8. He 9.He 10.They flies. rose. cooked. eat, and drink. laughed? woke. talked for half an hour. walked yesterday is playing have gone 基本句型 二 SS +link-+link-VV + +P(主+系+表)P(主+系+表) 此句型的句子有一个共同的特点:句子谓语动 词都不能表达一个完整的意思,必须加上一个表明 主语身份或状态的表语构成复合谓语,才能表达完 整的意思。这类动词叫做连系动词。系动词分两类 : (1)表示状态的连系动词。这些词有:be, look, seem, appear, smell, taste, sound, keep, remain, 等等。 (2)表示转变或结果的系动词。这些词有:become, get, grow, turn, go, come, prove,等等 SLink-V(系动动 词词) P(表语语) 1. This 2. The dinner 3. He 4. Everything 5. He 6. The book 7. The weather 8. His face is smells fell looks is is became turned an English dictionary. good. happy. different. tall and strong. interesting. warmer. red. 基本句型 三 SS + +VV + +O(主+谓+宾)O(主+谓+宾) 此句型句子的共同特点是:谓 语动词都具有实义,都是主语产生 的动作,但不能表达完整的意思, 必须跟有一个宾语,即动作的承受 者,才能使意思完整。这类动词叫 做及物动词。 SV(实义动词实义动词 )O(宾语宾语 ) 1. Who 2. She 3. He 8. He 5. They 6. Danny 7. I 4. He knows laugh at understands made ate likes want said the answer? her. English. cakes. some apples. donuts. to have a cup of tea. “Good morning.“ 基本句型 四 SS + +VV +IO ++IO +O(主+谓+间宾+直宾)O(主+谓+间宾+直宾) 此句型的句子有一个共同特点:谓语 动词必须跟有两个宾语才能表达完整的意 思。这两个宾语一个是动作的直接承受者 ,另一个是动作的间接承受者。 通常这一间接承受者用一个介词来连 接,当动作的间接承受者在动作的直接承 受者之前时,这一介词往往被省略。 SV(及物 ) o(多指 人) O(多指物) 1. She 2. She 3. He 8. He 5. I 6. I 7. I 4. He passed cooked brought bought showed gave told showed him her husband you her him him me a new dress. a delicious meal. a dictionary. nothing. my pictures. a hand. how to run the machine. that the bus was late. 基本句型 五 SS + +VV + +OO + +C(主+谓+宾+宾补)C(主+谓+宾+宾补) 此句型的句子的共同特点是 :动词虽然是及物动词,但是只 跟一个宾语还不能表达完整的意 思,必须加上一个补充成分来补 足宾语,才能使意思完整。 SV(及物 ) O(宾语宾语 ) C(宾补宾补 ) 1. We 2. They 3. They 4. They 5. What 6. We 7. He 8. I keep painted call found makes saw asked saw the table the door supper the house him him me them clean. green. dinner. dirty. sad? out. to come back soon. getting on the bus. (二) l1.They work hard. 主 + 谓 l2.The flower is dead. 主 + 系 + 表 l3.Plants need water. 主 + 谓 + 宾 l4.He gives me some seeds. 主 + 谓 +间宾+直宾 5.We should keep the plants in the shade. 主 + 谓 + 宾 + 宾补 l6.Many animals live in trees. 主 + 谓 5.The palaces were large and beautiful. 主主+ +系系+ +表表 6.Horse-riding,hammer throw and shooting are some of the more unusual events. 主主+ +系系+ +表表 8.I will pick up rubbish from the ground. 主主+ +谓谓+ +宾宾 9.You can plant a tree or build a birdhouse. 主主+ +谓谓+ +宾宾 10.I will tell my friends to protect the environment. 主主+ +谓谓+ +宾宾+ +宾补宾补



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