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食品安全事故应急处置20120626课件

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食品安全事故应急处置20120626课件
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Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 1 1 食品安全事故应急处置食品安全事故应急处置 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 内 容 9. 食物中毒诊断 10.食物中毒证据调查 11.事故责任调查 12.食物中毒救治与卫生处理 13.食物中毒调查报告 14.食品安全事故通报 15.食品安全事故信息管理 16.常见食物中毒的预防控制 2 1. 概述 2. 食品安全事故分级与响应 3. 食物中毒与食源性疾病 4. 食品安全事故报告 5. 食品安全事故调查处理 6. 事故调查前的经常性准备 7. 食品安全事故调查 8. 调查资料分析 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 3 3 第一节 概 述 • 概述 • 概念 § 食品安全 § 食品安全事故 § 重大食物中毒 § 突发性公共卫生事件 § 食品污染:未发生,但对人体健康可能发 生危害 • 食品安全事故特征 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 4 4 食品安全事故特征 l发生的突然性:无法预见 l事件具有公众属性:非特定人和群体 l对公众健康的直接危害和间接危害 l信息呈现有限性,多渠道传播特征,容易引发人们关注 l中毒发病特点和流行病学特点 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 5 5 第二节 食品安全事故分级与响应 • 食品安全事故分级 • 突发公共卫生事件分级 • 食品安全事故分级的原则 • 应急工作参与的主体及其职责 • 启动应急响应 • 响应级别调整及终止程序 • 响应终止 • 事故处置原则 • 应急处置措施 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 6 6 食品安全事故分级的原则(依据) • 发病人数和死亡人数 • 影响范围 • 出现健康危害 • 其他 § 政府和国务院认定的 § 首次出现的新的污染物引起,造成严重健康危害后 果,并有扩散趋势 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 9 9 应 急 管 理 程 序 1. 关注中毒相关事件 2. 健康影响评价 3. 社会经济影响评估 4. 应急处理 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 1010 响应级别调整及终止程序 • 指挥部组织分析评估论证 • 报政府批准后实施 • 调整后,事故相关地区政府采取相应措施 • 符合响应终止条件的,建议,上报,批准后实施 • 上级人民政府有关部门的技术支持与指导 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 1111 响应终止的条件 • 食品安全事故伤病员全部得到救治,原患者病情稳定 24小时以上,且无新的急性病症患者出现,食源性感染性 疾病在末例患者后经过最长潜伏期无新病例出现 • 现场、受污染食品得以有效控制,食品与环境污染得 到有效清理并符合相关标准,次生、衍生事故隐患消除 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 1212 第三节 食物中毒与食源性疾病 • 食物中毒 • 食源性疾病 • 食源性疾病的病原物分类 • 食物中毒的分类 • 引起食物中毒的食品 • 食物中毒的发病特点 • 食物中毒的流行病学特点 • 食物中毒与具有传染性食源性疾病的关联 • 细菌性食物中毒与感染性腹泻的联系和区别 • 事故造成的健康损害情况 • 各类食物中毒流行病学特点及主要症状 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 1313 食 物 中 毒 • 毒物 • 有害物质 • 食物中毒概念,介绍四种版本 § 《食物中毒诊断标准技术处理总则》(GB14938-1994) § 《食物中毒事故处理办法》 § 《中华人民共和国食品安全法》 § 美国疾病预防与控制中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,CDC) Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 1414 食 物 中 毒 的 发 病 特 点 • 发病与食物有关 • 潜伏期较短 • 发病曲线呈骤升骤降的趋势,没有传染病流行时发病曲线 的余波 • 中毒病人的临床表现基本相似 • 一般无人与人之间的直接传染 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 1515 食物中毒的流行病学特点 • 发病的季节性特点 • 发病的地区性特点 • 引起食物中毒的食品种类分布特点 • 食物中毒原因分布特点 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 1616 细菌性食物中毒与感染性腹泻的联系和区别 沙门菌、病原性大肠艾希菌、副溶血性弧菌为主的致 泻性弧菌引起的食源性疾病既有食物中毒的属性又是丙类 传染病。一般情况下,沙门菌肠炎、肠致泻性大肠杆菌肠 炎、副溶血性弧菌肠炎按照《感染性腹泻诊断标准及处理 原则》诊断及处理。 当因为食品被沙门菌、肠致泻性大肠杆菌、副溶血性 弧菌污染,集体用膳者集体发病呈暴发流行时,按照《食 物中毒诊断标准及技术处理总则》诊断及处理。 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 1717 毒物危害及健康结局 • 个体病变:变态反应;中毒;长期作用;致癌、致畸、致突变 • 群体健康影响:不明原因疾病;突发急性 中毒事件;慢性中毒; 某类疾病发病增加;肿瘤;其他 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 1818 事故造成健康损害情况主要表现形式 • 明显的暴发 • 聚集性不太明显的发病 • 长期或潜隐性损害,典型事故为食物污染事件 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 1919 第四节 食品安全事故报告 • 接报 • 报告 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 2020 接 报 • 使用统一的《食物中毒事故报告登记表》 • 告知报告或投诉人员相关事项 • 必要的,立即上报 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 2121 报 告 • 一般报告制度 • 紧急报告制度 • 报告主体和时限 • 食物中毒报告的管理 • 事故报告的基本要求 • 不同报告主体在食品安全事故报告中的要求 • 报告内容 • 核实事故报告 • 突发事件的报告程序和时限 • 事故信息来源 • 事故评估 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 2222 要求报告的事故 • 一次食物中毒人数30人及以上或死亡1人及以上 • 学校、幼儿园、建筑工地等集体单位发生食物中毒,一次中 毒人数5人及以上或死亡1人及以上 • 地区性或全国性重要活动期间发生食物中毒,一次中毒人数5 人及以上或死亡1人及以上 • 各级政府卫生行政部门认定的其它食品安全事故 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 2323 不同报告主体在食品安全事故报告中的要求 • 食品生产经营单位(或个人) • 可能与食品有关的急性群体性健康损害的,如学校 • 接收食品安全事故病人治疗的单位 • 食品安全相关技术机构、有关团体及个人 • 有关监管部门 • 卫生行政部门 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 2424 报 告 内 容 • 事件信息 • 事件发生、发展、控制过程信息 § 初次报告 § 进程报告 § 结案报告 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 2525 核 实 事 故 报 告 • 事故发生时间、发生地点、可能涉及的人群和区域范围 • 健康危害事故的进食方式、共同进食人数、发病人数、死 亡人数以及主要的症状和体征 • 事故可能原因及有毒有害物质调查和检验情况 • 已采取的控制措施、效果及相关工作建议 • 报告单位、报告人员及联系方式等 • 事故的初步评估,初判级别等 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 2626 突发事件的报告程序和时限 国 务 院 卫 生 部 省级卫生 行政部门 市级卫生 行政部门 县级卫生 行政部门 省级人民政府 市级人民政府 县级人民政府 检测机构、医疗卫 生机构和有关单位 立即报告 重大食物中毒,1小时 2小时 2小时 2小时 2小时 2小时 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 2727 事 故 信 息 来 源 • 生产经营单位报告的信息 • 医疗机构报告的信息 • 食品安全相关技术机构监测和分析结果 • 经核实的公众举报信息 • 经核实的媒体披露与报道信息 • 世界卫生组织等国际机构、其他国家和地区通报我国信息 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 2828 事 故 评 估 • 健康损害、涉及范围、后果及严重程度 • 影响范围及严重程度 • 事故发展蔓延趋势 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 2929 第五节 食品安全事故调查处理 • 相关法律法规 • 目的及其工作内容 • 调查处理的原则 • 事故处理的技术要点 • 处置措施 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 3030 事故调查处理目的及其工作内容 1. 确定是否是食品安全事故 2. 诊断食物中毒患者,确定中毒人数 3. 尽快查明食物中毒暴发事件发病原因 4. 查明肇事单位,污染环节或事发原因 5. 提出和采取控制措施,防止事故扩散蔓延 6. 协助救治中毒病人 7. 控制事态恶化发展 8. 收集对违法者实施处罚的证据 9. 为保护消费者的合法权益提供依据 10.提出预防类似中毒事件再次发生的措施和建议 11.积累食物中毒流行病学资料,为监管提供依据 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 3131 食品安全事故调查处理的原则 1. 合法性 2. 及时性 3. 科学性 4. 统一领导,分级负责:层级 5. 分工负责:同级各部门、机构等 6. 以人为本,减少危害 7. 科学评估,依法处置 8. 居安思危,预防为主 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 3232 事故处理的技术要点 • 健康危害评估 • 事件原因和病因调查 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 33 健 康 危 害 评 估 • 风险评价 § 风险识别 § 风险评估 § 风险预防控制 • 毒物对健康危害评估 § 危害辨识 § 暴露(接触)评估 • 危害现状评估 33 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 3434 风险评价对食品安全管理的作用 风险识别风险评估 管理评价 风险交流/应对措施 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 3535 危 害 辨 识 • 动物体内实验 • 体外实验 • 流行病学 • 物质结构和效应关系 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 3636 暴露(接触)评估 • 毒物:种类、性状 • 方式:经口 • 时间:接触持续时间、重复接触 • 剂量:浓度、内剂量 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 3737 危害现状评估 • 事故健康影响数据 • 监测数据 • 现场信息 • 公共信息 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 3838 特定危害的可能性及标准定义 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 3939 后 果 严 重 性 水 平 The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 4040 风 险 评 估 红区域:为无法接受,风险程度为1; 粉红区域: 为令人不快,风险程 度为2;紫色区域:经过里评价后可接受,风险程度为3; 黑色区域:为无需评 价也可接受,风险程度为4; 40 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 4141 风险评估的步骤 1. 确定事件类型、人群并判断损失的后果 2. 确定威胁及其与之对应的地域、人群及资产规模 3. 确定易损性(脆弱性) 4. 确定风险 5. 确定降低风险的措施(预警、分级、响应) The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress and the third Plenary session of the 16th CPC Central Committee. 4242 病 因 调 查 展 开 需 要 确 定 Your company sloganYour company slogan The guiding ideology should be guided by Deng Xiaoping's theory, the important thought of “three represents“ and the spirit of the 16th CPC National
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