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浙江省温州中学高中语文 六国论课件 新人教选修《中国古代诗歌散文欣赏》_1

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中国古代诗歌散文欣赏 浙江省温州中学高中语文 六国论课件 新人教选修中国古代诗歌散文欣赏_1
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With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 六国论—— 一个士人的呓语 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 一门父子三词客 千古文章八大 家 苏洵、苏轼、苏辙 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 六国破灭,六国破灭, 弊在赂秦弊在赂秦 (1)(1)赂秦:力亏赂秦:力亏 (2)(2)不赂者:盖失强援不赂者:盖失强援 总总分分 弊弊 在在 赂赂 秦秦 总总 苏洵之论 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 赂者 如何赂? 如何败? v思厥先祖父,暴霜露,斩荆棘,以有尺寸之地。子 孙视之不甚惜,举以予人,如弃草芥。今日割五城 ,明日割十城,然后得一夕安寝。起视四境,而秦 兵又至矣。 v然则诸侯之地有限,暴秦之欲无厌,奉之弥繁,侵 之愈急。故不战而强弱胜负已判矣。至于颠覆,理 固宜然。古人云:“以地事秦,犹抱薪救火,薪不尽 ,火不灭。”此言得之。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 不赂者 如何守? 如何败? 齐 燕 赵 与嬴而不助五国 不免 以荆卿为计 速祸 牧以谗诛 用武不终 智力孤危 (失去强援 不能独完) 邯郸为郡 勿 附 于 秦 刺 客 不 行 良 将 犹 在 与秦相较 或未易量 能守其土,义不赂秦。 用兵之效 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 结果:秦胜 强 秦以攻取之外,小则获邑,大则得城。较秦 之所得,与战胜而得者,其实百倍;诸侯之 所亡,与战败而亡者,其实亦百倍。则秦之 所大欲,诸侯之所大患,固不在战矣。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 苏洵之策 v呜呼!以赂秦之地封天下之谋臣,以事秦之 心礼天下之奇才,并力西向,则吾恐秦人食 之不得下咽也。悲夫! With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 苏洵之叹 时代背景 北宋建国后,鉴于唐末藩镇割据和五代军人乱政, 实行中央专制集权制度,将军权完全收归中央,造 成了军事上的衰势。北宋建国往后一百年间,与契 丹、西夏作战60余次,败多胜少,到苏洵所处的时 代,北宋每年要向契丹纳银20万两,绢30万匹;向 西夏纳银10万两,绢10万匹,茶3万斤。这样“陪邻 ”的结果,助长了契丹、西夏的气焰,加重了人民负 担,极大地损伤了国力,带来了无穷的祸患。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 苏洵之义 v苏洵精于古文写作,尤长于策论,主张“言必 中当世之过”。 v苏洵分析六国破灭的原因,是对宋王朝怯敌 退让敲警钟,讽谏宋王朝要以六国为鉴,不 为辽和西夏“积威之所劫”,要奋起抵御外侮 以维护其统治。 v士人的节操和担当 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 苏洵精于古文写作,尤长于策 论,主张“言必中当世之过”。为 文见解精辟,论点鲜明,论据有力 ,语言锋利,明快酣畅,纵横捭阖 ,雄奇遒劲,很有战国纵横家的风 度。课文选自《嘉祐集·权书》。 《权书》都是评论政治和历史的, 本文是其中的第8篇。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 论:是一种文体,以论证 为主,其特点是善于说理。 “六国论”在这里是一个省 略式短语,实际应是“六国 破灭之论”。文章旨在分析 六国失败的原因,借古讽今 。 解题 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 六国破灭的 原因? With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 六国地图 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 苏洵六国破灭,弊在赂秦。 苏辙 策略上有错误,大家惟有亲韩、魏,决 不可自相攻杀。 李桢 未“有擅形便之利如秦”,又未“得天 助”。 杜牧 呜呼!灭六国者,六国也,非秦也。 ……嗟夫!使六国各爱其人则足以拒秦 。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 苏洵为什么对其他的观点视而 不见,只抓住“赂秦”这一点不放? 苏洵观点偏颇的原因是什么? With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 时代背景 北宋建国后,鉴于唐末藩镇割据和五代 军人乱政,实行中央专制集权制度,将军权 完全收归中央,造成了军事上的衰势。北宋 建国往后一百年间,与契丹、西夏作战60余 次,败多胜少,到苏洵所处的时代,北宋每 年要向契丹纳银20万两,绢30万匹;向西夏 纳银10万两,绢10万匹,茶3万斤。这样“陪 邻”的结果,助长了契丹、西夏的气焰,加 重了人民负担,极大地损伤了国力,带来了 无穷的祸患。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 北宋地图 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 苏洵分析六国破灭 的原因,是对宋王朝怯 敌退让敲警钟,讽谏宋 王朝要以六国为鉴,不 为辽和西夏“积威之所 劫”,要奋起抵御外侮 以维护其统治。 借古讽今 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 朗 读 课 文 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 弊 在 赂 秦 (总 分) 赂 秦 力 亏不赂者以赂者丧 (总分) (总分) 数量上 程度上 道理上 (并 列) 齐亡之事实 燕亡之教训 赵亡之悲剧 (过渡)(分总) 为国者无 使为积威 之所劫哉 (借古) (递 进) 毋从六国破 亡之故事 (讽今) With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society (1)韩魏楚以地赂秦大事年表 前290年 韩割武遂予秦。前280 年楚割汉北及上庸予秦 。 前275年魏割温予秦 。 前273年 魏割南阳予秦。 (2)秦灭六国时间表 前230年灭韩 前225年灭魏 前223年灭楚 前222年灭赵、灭燕 前221年灭齐 (3 )、六国抗秦大事年表 前269年赵将赵奢击秦,大破之。前257年魏信陵君救赵秦兵解 去。前247年信陵君率五国兵败秦军河外。前233年秦攻赤丽、 宜安,被赵将李牧击退。前232年秦攻番吾,又被李牧击退。 六国与秦的有关史实 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 正音正音 A. A.弊在赂(弊在赂( lù lù )秦)秦 小则获邑(小则获邑( yì yì )) 厥(厥( júe júe )先祖父)先祖父 B.B.暴(暴( pù pù )霜露)霜露 洎(洎( jì jì )牧以谗诛)牧以谗诛 如弃草芥(如弃草芥( jiè jiè )) C.C.燕(燕( y yā ān n )国)国 下咽(下咽( y yā ān n)) 殆(殆( dài dài )尽)尽 D.D.积威所劫(积威所劫( jié jié )) 为(为( wéi wéi )国者)国者 互丧(互丧( sàng sàng )) With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 阅读第一段阅读第一段 vv熟读全段,疏通文意熟读全段,疏通文意 实词:实词:兵兵 弊弊 赂赂 互丧互丧 率率 完完 虚词:虚词:以以 盖盖 故故 vv翻译全段翻译全段 vv第一段提出了怎样的中心论点?第一段提出了怎样的中心论点? With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 六国破灭,非兵不利,战 不善,弊在赂秦。赂秦而力亏 ,破灭之道也。或曰:六国互 丧,率赂秦耶?曰:不赂者以 赂者丧。盖失强援,不能独完 。故曰弊在赂秦也。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 六国破灭,六国破灭, 弊在赂秦弊在赂秦 (1)(1)赂秦:力亏赂秦:力亏 (2)(2)不赂者:盖失强援不赂者:盖失强援 总总分分 弊弊 在在 赂赂 秦秦 总总 本段提出了怎样的中心论点?本段提出了怎样的中心论点? With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society (1)韩魏楚以地赂秦大事年表 前290年 韩割武遂予秦。前280 年楚割汉北及上庸予秦 。 前275年魏割温予秦 。 前273年 魏割南阳予秦。 (2)秦灭六国时间表 前230年灭韩 前225年灭魏 前223年灭楚 前222年灭赵、灭燕 前221年灭齐 (3 )、六国抗秦大事年表 前269年赵将赵奢击秦,大破之。前257年魏信陵君救赵秦兵解 去。前247年信陵君率五国兵败秦军河外。前233年秦攻赤丽、 宜安,被赵将李牧击退。前232年秦攻番吾,又被李牧击退。 六国与秦的有关史实 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 阅读文章第二段阅读文章第二段 vv熟读全段,疏通文意熟读全段,疏通文意 实词:实词:邑邑 其实其实 祖父祖父 暴暴 厌厌 判判 颠覆颠覆 得得 虚词:虚词:以以 则则 之所之所 固固 然后然后 然则然则 至于至于 句子:句子: ①①秦以攻取之外,小则获邑,大则得城。秦以攻取之外,小则获邑,大则得城。 ②②则秦之所大欲,诸侯之所大患,固不在战矣。则秦之所大欲,诸侯之所大患,固不在战矣。 ③③然则诸侯之地有限,暴秦之欲无厌,奉之弥繁然则诸侯之地有限,暴秦之欲无厌,奉之弥繁 ,侵之愈急。,侵之愈急。 vv翻译全段翻译全段 vv本段论证的是什么?运用了什么论证方法?本段论证的是什么?运用了什么论证方法? With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 秦以攻取之外,小则获 邑,大则得城。较秦之所 得,与战胜而得者,其实 百倍;诸侯之所亡,与战 败而亡者,其实亦百倍。 则秦之所大欲,诸侯之所 大患,固不在战矣。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 思厥先祖父,暴霜露,斩荆棘, 以有尺寸之地。子孙视之不甚惜 ,举以予人,如弃草芥。今日割 五城,明日割十城,然后得一夕 安寝。起视四境,而秦兵又至矣 。然则诸侯之地有限,暴秦之欲 无厌,奉之弥繁,侵之愈急。故 不战而强弱胜负已判矣。至于颠 覆,理固宜然。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 古人云:“以地事秦,犹抱薪救 火,薪不尽,火不灭。”此言得 之。 比喻因为方法不对,虽然有心消灭 祸害,结果反而使祸害扩大。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 古今异义词: 其实 颠覆 祖父 古:是 两个词语,其:代词。 实:实际数目。 今:副词,表示所说的实际情况。 古:灭亡。 今:采取阴谋手段,从内部 推翻合法政府。 古:祖辈,父辈。 今:父亲的父亲。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 然后 古义 这样以后 今义 连词,接着某种 动作或情况之后 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 秦之所得 战胜而得 诸侯所亡战败而亡 百倍 百倍 祖先暴 斩尺寸之地 子孙不甚惜 如弃草芥 大欲大患 固不在战 地有限 奉之弥繁 欲无厌 侵之愈急 一夕安寝 秦兵又至 强弱胜负 不战已判 以地事秦 抱薪救火 对比论证引证法 赂秦力亏 破灭之道 此言得之 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 阅读文章第三段阅读文章第三段 vv熟读全段,疏通文意熟读全段,疏通文意 实词:实词:迁灭迁灭 与与 义义 速速 再再 却却 洎洎 殆殆 智力智力 数理数理 虚词:虚词:未尝未尝 以以 焉焉 诚诚 向使向使 当当 或或 活用:活用:①①义义不赂秦;不赂秦;②②五五战于秦,战于秦,二二败而败而三三胜;胜; ③③李牧连李牧连却却之之 修辞:则胜负之数,存亡之理修辞:则胜负之数,存亡之理……[……[互文互文] ] vv翻译全段翻译全段 vv第三段:齐、燕、赵灭亡的原因是什么?第三段:齐、燕、赵灭亡的原因是什么? With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 齐人未尝赂秦,终继五国迁灭, 何哉?与嬴而不助五国也。五国既丧 ,齐亦不免矣。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 燕赵之君,始有远略,能守其土,义不 赂秦。是故燕虽小国而后亡,斯用兵之 效也。至丹以荆卿为计,始速祸焉。赵 尝五战于秦,二败而三胜。后秦击赵者 再,李牧连却之。洎牧以谗诛,邯郸为 郡,惜其用武而不终也。且燕赵处秦革 灭殆尽之际,可谓智力孤危,战败而亡 ,诚不得已。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 向使三国各爱其地,齐人勿附于秦,刺 客不行,良将尤在,则胜负之数,存亡 之理,当与秦相较,或未易量。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 不赂者 齐 燕 赵 与嬴而不助五国 不免 以荆卿为计 速祸 牧以谗诛 用武不终 智力孤危 (失去强援 不能独完) 邯郸为郡 勿 附 于 秦 刺 客 不 行 良 将 犹 在 与秦相较 或未易量 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 阅读文章第四段阅读文章第四段 vv熟读全段,疏通文意熟读全段,疏通文意 实词:实词:封封 事事 礼礼 下下/ /咽咽 积威积威 劫劫 虚词:以虚词:以 则则 为为 活用:活用:①①礼礼天下之奇才天下之奇才 ②②日日削削月月割割 句式:为国者无使(句式:为国者无使(己己))为为积威之积威之所所劫哉!劫哉! [ [ 省略句、被动句省略句、被动句] ] vv翻译全段翻译全段 vv本段的主要内容是什么?在结构上的作用是什本段的主要内容是什么?在结构上的作用是什 么?么? With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 呜呼!以赂秦之地封天下之谋臣,以事 秦之心礼天下之奇才,并力西向,则吾恐秦 人食之不得下咽也。悲夫!有如此之势,而 为秦人积威之所劫,日削月割,以趋于亡。 为国者无使为积威之所劫哉! vv开药方开药方, ,治病根治病根: : 为国者无使为积威之所劫哉!为国者无使为积威之所劫哉! vv结构上:承上启下结构上:承上启下————由由“ “谈古谈古” ”到到“ “论今论今” ” With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 分析第五段的主要内容分析第五段的主要内容 夫六国与秦皆诸侯,其势弱于秦,而犹有可 以不赂而胜之之势。苟以天下之大,下而从六 国破亡之故事,是又在六国下矣。 古古 今今 六国与秦:六国与秦:诸侯诸侯 北宋:北宋:天下天下之大之大 有可以不赂而胜之之势有可以不赂而胜之之势 而从六国破亡之故事而从六国破亡之故事 在六国下在六国下 对比对比 结论:勿从六国破亡之故事结论:勿从六国破亡之故事 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 弊 在 赂 秦 (总 分) 赂 秦 力 亏不赂者以赂者丧 (总分) (总分) 数量上 程度上 道理上 (并 列) 齐亡之事实 燕亡之教训 赵亡之悲剧 (过渡)(分总) 为国者无 使为积威 之所劫哉 (借古) (递 进) 毋从六国破 亡之故事 (讽今) With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 现实启迪现实启迪 vv不要畏惧强国,不要屈服于霸不要畏惧强国,不要屈服于霸 权主义、强权外交;权主义、强权外交; vv不要屈从于强权政治;不要屈从于强权政治; vv不要为权威所吓倒不要为权威所吓倒………… With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 阅读讨论 试从文体、立论的侧重点、论点和作者的写作目的四 方面把贾谊的《过秦论》、杜牧的《阿房宫赋》、苏 洵的《六国论》作一比较。 ★苏洵的《六国论》是一篇政议文,从六国破亡 的教训立意,提出“六国破灭,弊在赂秦”的论点 ,借古讽今:警告北宋王朝不要重蹈六国灭亡的 覆辙。 ★贾谊的《过秦论》是一篇政议文,从秦亡的教 训“过秦”的角度立意,提出“仁义不施而攻守之 势异也”的观点,借古规汉:建议汉文帝对人民 实行宽松的政策。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society ★杜牧的《阿房宫赋》是一篇赋,从秦亡的 教训立意,提出“秦爱纷奢”而亡国的观点 ,借古讽今:提醒唐朝统治者不要重蹈秦 亡之覆辙。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 课堂训练:解释古今异义词 ⑴其实百倍 ⑵思厥先祖父 ⑶始速祸焉 ⑷可谓智力孤危 ⑸而从六国破灭之故事 那实际情况/实际上。 祖辈和父辈/指父亲的父亲。 招致/指速度快。 智谋和力量/一个词,指人认识、理解客观事物并运 用知识、经验等解决问题的能力。 前例、旧事/今指真实的或虚构的有人物有情节的 事情。 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society 课堂训练:解释词类活用词 ⑴不能独完 ⑵故不战而强弱胜负 已判矣 ⑶以地事秦 ⑷义不赂秦 ⑸始速祸焉 (6)李牧连却之 (7)惜其用武而不终也 (8)以事秦之心礼天下 之奇才 (9)日割月削“日”“月”,名词作状语。 “事”,用作动词,侍奉。 “义”,用作动词,坚持正义。 “完”,形容词用作动词,保全。 “却”,使动用法,使……退却 “礼”,名词作动词,礼遇,礼待。 “终”,形容 词作动词,坚 持到底 “速”,形容 词作动词,招致 “战”,名词作动词,作战,打仗 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society • 解释下列多义词 • 诸侯之所亡,与战败所亡者 是故燕虽小国而后亡 以荆卿为计 邯郸为郡 而为秦人积威之所劫哉 为国者无使为------ 六国破灭 薪不尽,火不灭 向使三国各爱其地 并力西向 而秦兵又至矣 斯用兵之效也 以地事秦,犹抱薪救火 良将犹在 丧失,丢失,动词 灭亡,动词。 作为,动词 成为,动词 被,介词 治理,动词 灭亡,动词 熄灭,动词 如果,连词 朝着,动词 名词,军队 名词,军事、战争 动词,好象 副词,还 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, the quality of people's food needs and rate also changing.In order to meet the needs of society • 或曰…… • 或未易量 • 以地事秦 • 而从六国破亡之故事 • 燕赵之君,始有远略 • 始速祸焉 • 终继五国迁灭 • 惜其用武而不终也 • 故曰“弊在赂秦也” • 从六国破亡之故事 • 强弱胜负已判矣 • 而犹有可以不赂而胜之之势 有人,有的人,无定代词 也许,或许,连词 事奉,动词 事情,名词 起初,副词 才,副词 终于,副词 用到底,坚持到底,动词 所以,因此,连词 旧,形容词 胜利,名词 战胜,动词 With the improving quality of life as well as the ever-accelerating pace of life, th
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