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美国教育英文简单介绍

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美国教育英文简单介绍 美国教育介绍 美国教育英文简单介绍美国教育英文简单介绍
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Education in the United States of America 美国教育体系 I. The goal of education • “Give a man a fish and he will eat for a day. Teach a man how to fish and he will eat for the rest of his life.” --- Chinese Proverb The goal of education is to achieve universal literacy and to provide individuals with educational opportunities. Education in the United States is provided mainly by government, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. vEach of 50 states in the United States has its own laws regulating education. From state to state, some laws are similar; others are not. II. Education –a local matter III. Expenditure of Education vEducational funds are from several sources. v Funds for elementary and secondary schools come from 3 sources: labout 50% from local property taxes, l40-50% from the states, l 8%-9% from the federal government. Levels of schooling Higher Education Secondary Education Elementary Education Elementary school and secondary school vIn most areas, free public school education begins with kindergarten classes for 5 years old. vAlmost all the 50 states have laws that require 12 years of compulsory attendance at school for children. vIn some school system, the 12 grades are divided into two stages, the first 6 grades for elementary school and the next 6 grades for secondary school. vIn other school system, there are three divisions: elementary school (grades1—6), junior high school (7— 9), and senior high school (10—12). Education in the United States Grade Age Preschool Kindergarten5 - 6 Elementary School 1st Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade 4th Grade 5th Grade 6 - 7 7 - 8 8 - 9 12 - 13 10 - 11 6th Grade 7th Grade 8th Grade 11 - 12 9 - 10 13 - 14 Middle School 9th Grade 14 - 15 10th Grade 11th Grade 12th Grade 15 - 16 16 - 17 17 - 18 High School IV. Curricula for Students 1.Elementary School vAlthough the federal government has no national curriculum for education, almost every elementary school provides instruction in these subjects: language arts; math ;penmanship; science; social studies; music; art; and physical education. Physical Education 2. Secondary School vSecondary schools offer these subjects: English, mathematics, science, social studies and physical education. vMost schools offer foreign languages. Spanish is the most popular foreign language for Americans . vClass atmosphere is usually relaxed in American schools. vAmerican educator believe that children learn better when they are happy and interested, so every effort has been made to arouse the interests of the individual. Public Schools vPublic schools are locally controlled. vFirstly, public schools are supported by taxes paid by all people whether or not they have children attending schools. vSecondly, they are free from religious influence. vPublic schools educate about 88% of all American children. Private Schools vMost private schools are related to religious groups. vIn these schools, religious instruction is part of the curriculum vToday, about 12% of all American children go to private schools for their elementary and secondary education. Middle School in U.S.A Standardized Tests vIn the last year of high school, students who want to go on to receive higher education have to take some kind of standardized tests. vThe most popular tests are Scholastic Assessment Tests (SAT) and the American College Testing (ACT) SAT vThe SAT is a three-hour, multiple- choice exam measuring verbal, math, and reasoning skills. vIt is required by most higher education institutions in the United States for the admission to undergraduate degree programs. Entrance Requirement of a University or a College vSuccessful applicants at such colleges are usually chosen on the basis of : lTheir high school academic performance lLetters of recommendation from their high school teachers lThe impression they make during the interviews at the university lTheir scores on SAT The Complex System of Higher Education It comprises four categories of institutions: vThe university vThe four-year undergraduate institution—the college vThe technical training institution vThe two-year, or community college The Military Academy vThe only institutions of higher education funded by the federal government are related to the Military. vThey are the United States Military Academy (陆军学校)at West Point, New York; the United States Naval Academy (海军学校)in Annapolis, Maryland; and the United States Air Force Academy (空军军官学校)in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Credit vOne of the measurements for an undergraduate in academic progress is credit or “point”. vTypically, an undergraduate student has to earn a certain number of credits (about 120) in order to receive the bachelor’s degree at the end of four years of college. vCredits are earned by attending lectures (or lab classes) and by successfully completing assignments and examinations. vStudents who want to pursue graduate study have to take lthe Graduate Record Examination (GRE), lor the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT) for law school, lor the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) if one wants to go to a medical school. Table of Academic Degrees 18 (age)Undergraduate for the Bachelor’s degree (4 years) 1 (grade) 192 203 214 22Graduate School for the Master’s (1-2) 5 236 24Graduate School for the Doctorate (2,3 or more) 7 258 Postdoctoral Study and Research Public Universities vPublic universities are operated by a state or local government vSome famous public universities: lUniversity of California at Berkley lUniversity of California at Los Angles (UCLA) lUniversity of Virginia Private Universities vAbout 25 percent of higher education in the United States are privately operated by religious organization. vThe most prestigious universities in America are the older private universities, such as Harvard University (1636),Yale University (1701), Princeton University (1746), Columbia University (1754),etc. Ivy League Universities vIvy League Universities refer to the eight older private universities in the east of America. vHarvard University 1636 Cambridge MA vYale University 1701 New Haven CN vPrinceton University 1746 Princeton N.J vUniversity of Pennsylvania 1740 Philadelphia PA vColumbia University 1754 New York City NY vBrown University 1764 Providence RI vDartmouth College 1769 Hanover NH vCornell University 1865 Ithaca NY Harvard University Thank you for listening!
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