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共产党宣言中文版与1888年英文版002

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中文版与1888年英文版002 中文版与1888年英文版 共产党宣言中文版 共产党宣言1888年英文版 1888年英文版
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*WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 •二、无产者和共产党人 •II. Proletarians and Communists Manifesto of the Communist Party *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 •共产党人同全体无产者的 关系是怎样的呢? •In what relation do the Communists stand to the proletarians as a whole? *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 •共产党人不是同其他工人 政党相对立的特殊政党。 •The Communists do not form a separate party opposed to the other working-class parties. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 他们没有任何同整个无产阶级的 利益不同的利益。 •They have no interests separate and apart from those of the proletariat as a whole. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 他们不提出任何特殊的原则,用以塑造无产 阶级的运动。 • They do not set up any sectarian principles of their own, by which to shape and mould the proletarian movement. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 •共产党人同其他无产阶级 政党不同的地方只是: •The Communists are distinguished from the other working-class parties by this only: *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 •一方面,在无产者不 同的民族的斗争中, 共产党人强调和坚持 整个无产阶级共同的 不分民族的利益; *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 1. In the national struggles of the proletarians of the different countries, they point out and bring to the front the common interests of the entire proletariat, independently of all nationality. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 •另一方面,在无产阶级 和资产阶级的斗争所经 历的各个发展阶段上, 共产党人始终代表整个 运动的利益。 *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 2. In the various stages of development which the struggle of the working class against the bourgeoisie has to pass through, they always and everywhere represent the interests of the movement as a whole. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 因此,在实践方面,共产党人 是各国工人政党中最坚决的、 始终起推动作用的部分;在理 论方面,他们胜过其余无产阶 级群众的地方在于他们了解无 产阶级运动的条件、进程和一 般结果。 *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • The Communists, therefore, are on the one hand, practically, the most advanced and resolute section of the working-class parties of every country, that section which pushes forward all others; on the other hand, theoretically, they have over the great mass of the proletariat the advantage of clearly understanding the line of march, the conditions, and the ultimate general results of the proletarian movement. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 •共产党人的最近目的是和 其他一切无产阶级政党的 最近目的一样的:使无产 阶级形成为阶级,推翻资 产阶级的统治,由无产阶 级夺取政权。 *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • The immediate aim of the Communists is the same as that of all other proletarian parties: formation of the proletariat into a class, overthrow of the bourgeois supremacy, conquest of political power by the proletariat. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 共产党人的理论原理,决不是以 这个或那个世界改革家所发明或 发现的思想、原则为根据的。 • The theoretical conclusions of the Communists are in no way based on ideas or principles that have been invented, or discovered, by this or that would-be universal reformer. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 这些原理 不过是现存的阶级斗争、我们眼前 的历史运动的真实关系的一般表述。 • They merely express, in general terms, actual relations springing from an existing class struggle, from a historical movement going on under our very eyes. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 废除先前存在的所有制关系 ,并不是共产主义所独具的 特征。 • The abolition of existing property relations is not at all a distinctive feature of communism. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 一切所有制关系都经历了经常的历史更替、 经常的历史变更。 • All property relations in the past have continually been subject to historical change consequent upon the change in historical conditions. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 例如,法国革命废除了封建的所有制,代之 以资产阶级的所有制。 •The French Revolution, for example, abolished feudal property in favour of bourgeois property. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 共产主义的特征并不是要废 除一般的所有制,而是要废 除资产阶级的所有制。 • The distinguishing feature of Communism is not the abolition of property generally, but the abolition of bourgeois property. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 但是,现代的资产阶级私有制是建立在阶级对立上 面、建立在一些人对另一些人的剥削上面的产品生 产和占有的最后而又完备的表现。 • But modern bourgeois private property is the final and most complete expression of the system of producing and appropriating products, that is based on class antagonisms, on the exploitation of the many by the few. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 从这个意义上说,共产党人可以把自己 的理论概括为一句话:消灭私有制。 • In this sense, the theory of the Communists may be summed up in the single sentence: Abolition of private property. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 •有人责备我们共产党人 ,说我们消灭个人挣得 的、自己劳动得来的财 产,要消灭构成个人的 一切自由、活动和独立 的基础的财产。 *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • We Communists have been reproached with the desire of abolishing the right of personally acquiring property as the fruit of a man’s own labour, which property is alleged to be the groundwork of all personal freedom, activity and independence. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 好一个劳动得来的、自己挣 得的、自己赚来的财产! •Hard-won, self- acquired, self-earned property! *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 你们说的是资产阶级财产出现以 前的那种小资产阶级、小农的财 产吗? • Do you mean the property of petty artisan and of the small peasant, a form of property that preceded the bourgeois form? *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 那种财产用不着我们去消灭,工业的发展已 经把它消灭了,而且每天都在消灭它。 • There is no need to abolish that; the development of industry has to a great extent already destroyed it, and is still destroying it daily. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 •或者,你们说的是现代的 资产阶级的私有财产吧? •Or do you mean the modern bourgeois private property? *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 •但是,难道雇佣劳动,无 产者的劳动,会给无产者 创造出财产来吗? •But does wage- labour create any property for the labourer? *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 没有的事。Not a bit. • 这种劳动所创造的资本,即剥削雇 佣劳动的财产,只有在不断产生出 新的雇佣劳动来重新加以剥削的条 件下才能增殖的财产。 • It creates capital, i.e., that kind of property which exploits wage- labour, and which cannot increase except upon condition of begetting a new supply of wage-labour for fresh exploitation. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 现今的这种财产是在资本和 雇佣劳动的对立中运动的。 让我们来看看这种对立的两 个方面吧。 • Property, in its present form, is based on the antagonism of capital and wage labour. Let us examine both sides of this antagonism. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 做一个资本家,这就是说,他在生产中不仅占有一 种纯粹个人的地位,而且占有一种社会地位。 •To be a capitalist, is to have not only a purely personal, but a social status in production. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 资本是集体的产物,它只有通过社会许多成 员的共同活动,而且归根到底只有通过社会 全体成员的共同活动,才能运动起来。 • Capital is a collective product, and only by the united action of many members, nay, in the last resort, only by the united action of all members of society, can it be set in motion. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 •因此,资本不是一种 个人力量,而是一种 社会力量。 •Capital is therefore not only personal; it is a social power. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 因此,把资本变为公共的、属于社会全 体成员的财产,这并不是把个人财产变 为社会财产。 • When, therefore, capital is converted into common property, into the property of all members of society, personal property is not thereby transformed into social property. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 这里所改变的只是财产的社 会性质。 • It is only the social character of the property that is changed. • 它将失掉它的阶级性质。 • It loses its class character. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 现在,我们来看看雇佣劳动。雇佣劳动的平 均价格是最低限度的工资,即工人为维持其 工人的生活所必需的生活资料的数额。 • The average price of wage-labour is the minimum wage, i.e., that quantum of the means of subsistence which is absolutely requisite to keep the labourer in bare existence as a labourer. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 因此,雇佣工人靠自己的劳动所占有的东西,只够 勉强维持他的生命的再生产。 • What, therefore, the wage- labourer appropriates by means of his labour, merely suffices to prolong and reproduce a bare existence. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 我们决不打算消灭这种供直接生命再生产用的劳动 产品的个人占有,这种占有并不会留下任何剩余的 东西使人们有可能支配别人的劳动。 • We by no means intend to abolish this personal appropriation of the products of labour, an appropriation that is made for the maintenance and reproduction of human life, and that leaves no surplus wherewith to command the labour of others. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 我们要消灭的只是这种占有的可怜的性质,在这种 占有下,工人仅仅为增殖资本而活着,只有在统治 阶级的利益需要他活着的时候才能活着。 • All that we want to do away with is the miserable character of this appropriation, under which the labourer lives merely to increase capital, and is allowed to live only in so far as the interest of the ruling class requires it. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 在资产阶级社会里,活的劳动只是增殖已经 积累起来的劳动的一种手段。 •In bourgeois society, living labour is but a means to increase accumulated labour. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 在共产主义社会里,已经积累起 来的劳动只是扩大、丰富和提高 工人的生活的一种手段。 • In Communist society, accumulated labour is but a means to widen, to enrich, to promote the existence of the labourer. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 因此,在资产阶级社会里是过去支配现在, 在共产主义社会里是现在支配过去。 • In bourgeois society, therefore, the past dominates the present; in Communist society, the present dominates the past. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 在资产阶级社会里,资本具有独立性和个性 ,而活动着的个人却没有独立性和个性。 •In bourgeois society capital is independent and has individuality, while the living person is dependent and has no individuality. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 而资产阶级却把消灭这种关系说成是消灭个性和自 由!说对了。 •And the abolition of this state of things is called by the bourgeois, abolition of individuality and freedom! And rightly so. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 的确,正是要消灭资产者的个性、独立性和 自由。 •The abolition of bourgeois individuality, bourgeois independence, and bourgeois freedom is undoubtedly aimed at. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 在现今的资产阶级生产关系的范围内,所谓自由就 是自由贸易,自由买卖。 •By freedom is meant, under the present bourgeois conditions of production, free trade, free selling and buying. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 •但是,买卖一消失,自 由买卖也就会消失。 •But if selling and buying disappears, free selling and buying disappears also. *WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! *The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels II. Proletarians and Communists *二、无产者和共产党人 • 关于自由买卖的言论,也像我们 的资产阶级的其他一切关于自由 的大话一样,仅仅对于不自由的 买卖来说,对于中世纪被奴役的 市民来说,才是有意义的,而对 于共产主义要消灭买卖、消灭资 产阶级生产关系和资产阶级本身 这一点来说,
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