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主谓一致good

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主谓 一致 good
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主谓一致 主谓一致的定义 主谓一致是指谓语在人称和数上必须和主 语的人称和数保持一致。这是英语语法中 必须遵循的基本规则,也是英语和汉语区 别很大的地方。 主谓一致的三大原则 一、语法一致原则 二、意义一致原则 三、就近原则 一、语法一致原则 v主语为单数或不可数形式,则谓语动词也用 单数形式; v主语为复数形式,则谓语动词也用复数形式 。 I often help him and he often helps me. We often help each other. 二、意义一致 v主语形式虽为单数,但意义为复数,则谓语 动词用复数; v主语形式为复数,而意义为单数,则谓语动 词用单数。 The crowd were surrounding the government official. Maths is hard to learn. 三、就近原则 v就近原则即谓语动词的单复数形式取决于最 靠近它的主语。 例如: There is a pen and two pencils on the desk. 主谓一致的具体应用 一、单数形式的名词与谓语动词的一致 二、复数形式的名词与谓语动词的一致 三、并列主语与动词的一致 四、“单数形式的名词+with/as well as…+名词”结 构与动词的一致 五、“表部分的名词+of+名词”结构与动词的一致 六、短语、从句或句子作主语与动词的一致 七、名词化的形容词和过去分词作主语与动词的 一 致 八、代词与动词的一致 九、数词与动词的一致 一、单数形式的名词与谓语动词的一 致之单形集体名词 1.单形集体名词被视为一个整体时,用作单数名词 Our family has a reunion every year. 2. 单形集体名词被视为若干个体时,则要求复数动词 His family are waiting for him. 3. 有些单形集体名词,即所谓的“群体名词”,如 police,cattle等,要求复数动词 The police have caught the murderer. 单数形式的名词与谓语动词的一致之 “more than” 1. “More than one + 单形名词”结构虽有复念,但习惯上多用 单数谓语 More than one question was asked. 2. “more +复形名词+than one”多要求复数动词 More members than one have protested against the proposal. 3. “a+单形名词+or two”结构多要求单数动词 A servant or two or three was to accompany them. 4. “one or two +复形名词”结构要求复数动词 One or two reasons were suggested. 5. “many a +单形名词”结构要求单数动词 Many a fine man has died in the battle. 单数形式的名词与谓语动词的一致之 “两个形容词+一个单形名词” 在“两个形容词+一个单形名词”结构中,单数 名词如有复念(即代表两个事物),则用复 数动词 The red and the white rose are both beautiful. English and French grammar are not very difficult to learn. 二、复数形式的名词与谓语动词的一 致 复形名词(大多以s结尾)在句中作主语 通常要求谓语复数动词,具体应用要注 意如下几点: 1. 含双数概念的复形名词要求复数动词 Are your kitchen scales(天平) accurate? 2. 含复数概念的复形名词要求复数动词 The customs (关税)were paid. My funds (资金)are a bit low at present. 3. 含单数概念的复形名词要求用单数动词 His works (工厂)is rather small. 4. 表时间,距离,钱额的复数名词用单数动词 Ten years is a moment in history. Ten thousand dollars is a large sum. 5. 外来的复形名词要求用单数动词 This data is very interesting. 6. 以-ics结尾表学科的复形名词要求用单数动词 Politics(政治) is often a topic for discussion. Statistics (统计学) is a principal course at the business school. 注意: 这类名词用于表示具体的、实际的内容时,则往往 要求复数动词。 What are your politics(政治观点)? Statistics(统计数字) prove nothing in this case. 7. 以-s结尾的某些表疾病的复形名词要求用单 数动词 German measles(风疹) is a dangerous disease for pregnant women. 8. 有些复形名词既可用单数动词也可用复数动 词 Where is / are your manners(礼貌)? 9. 复形书名一般要求用单数动词 The Newcomers《新来的人们》 is one of Thackeray’s finest books. (威廉·梅克比斯· 萨克雷(William Makepeace Thackeray,18ll一 1863)是英国19世纪杰出的批判现实主义小说家) 三、并列主语与动词的一致 并列主语是指主语为and、or等并列词 连接的名词作主语,其谓语的单复数要看 情况而定,具体用法如下: 1.当“名词+and+名词”结构表示一种事物或 一种概念时,应用单数动词 Fish and chips(炸鱼土豆片) is a popular supper. The poet and writer(诗人兼作家) has come. 注意:有时并列主语用单数或复数动词都可 Time and tide(岁月) wait / waits for no man. 2. “each / every / no+单形名词+ each / every / no+单形名词”结构要求单数动词 Every hour and every minute(每一小时,每一 分钟) is important. 3. “名词/代词+or+名词/代词”结构应根据or后的名词 /代词确定单/复数动词 He or I (他或是我) am in the wrong. He or his brothers(他或他的兄弟们) were to blame. 4. “either+名词+or+名词”结构应根据or后的名词/ 代词确定单/复数动词 Either the shirts or the sweater(这些衬衣,要 不就是这件毛衣) is a good buy. 5. “not only+名词+but (also) +名词”结构要求动词 应与but (also)后的名词一致 Not only the students but also their teacher( 不仅是学生,他们的老师也) is enjoying the film. 6. “neither+名词+nor+名词”结构要求动词与nor后 面的名词一致 Neither you nor your brother(你和人你的兄弟 都不) is in fault. Neither he nor they(你和他们都不) are mistaken. 7. “there be”结构的动词应与最靠近它的名词的单复 数一致。 There is a desk and some chairs in the room. There are some chairs and a desk in the room. 四、“单数形式的名词+with/as well as…+ 名词”结构与动词的一致 “名词+介词或介词短语with / together with / along with / including / except / besides / as well as / in addition to…+名 词”结构作主语,谓语一般与第一个名词一 致。 A teacher, with his students, is seeing a film. I as well as they am ready to help. 五、“表部分的名词+of+名词”结构与动 词的一致 1. “one of + 复形名词”结构后的定语从句要求谓语动 词应用复数;但当“one of”前有限定词如the、 the only、the very等修饰时,结构后的定语从句 要求谓语动词应用与one一致,用单数谓语。 This is one of the best books that have appeared. She is the one of those women who doesn’t know a thing about furniture. 2. “a pair of +复形名词” 结构多要求用单数谓语, 但“复数名词+of a/this/that pair”结构多用复数谓 语。 A pair of gloves(一双手套) is a nice present. Socks of this pair(这双袜子) are different in size. 3. “(a) part of+ 名词”结构中,若名词为单形,一般 要求用单数动词,若名词为复形,则复数动词。 (A) part of the story(故事的一部分) is not true. A part of the apples(部分苹果) are bad 4. “a group(一组) / crowd(人群) / flock(一群 ) / file(一列)… of +复形名词”结构可用单数 动词,也可用复数动词。前者强调整体,后 者强调各个组成部分。 This group of students(这一组学生) is to be sent to Italy. This group of students(这组学生都) are to be sent to Italy. 5. “a number of /numbers of + 复形名词”结构 应用复数动词;而“the number of +复形名词 ”结构应用单数动词。 A large number of people(许多人) have come to see the exhibition. The number of the chairs(椅子的数量) in the room is ten. 6. “an average / total of +复形名词”结构应用 复数动词;而“the average / total of +复形 名词”结构应用单数动词。 An average of 3000 letters (平均3000封信 ) a month are received by the newspaper’s office. A total of 3000 letters(总共3000封信) were received last month. The average of letters(信件的平均数) received each month is 3000. The total of letters(信件的总数) received last month was 3000. 7. “a lot / mass / heap/plenty…of +名词”结构要求 谓语动词与of后的名词的单复数一致。 A mass of people(许多人) were seen working there. A lot of money(很多钱) is spent on travel. 8. “a large quantity of +不可数名词或复数名词”、 “a large amount of +不可数名词”结构要求单数 谓语动词;“large quantities of +不可数名词或复 数名词”、“large amounts of +不可数名词”结构 要求复数动词。 A large quantity of students(很多学生) is coming. Large amounts of water(大量水) are wasted. 9. “this / that / a / what kind of +名词”结构 要求单数动词;而 “these /those kind of+ 名词”、“these/ those /what kinds of+名词 ”结构多要求复数动词。 This kind of apple(这种苹果) is sour. These kind of apple(s)(这些苹果) are sour. What kind of apple(哪种苹果) is sour? What kinds of apple(哪些种类的苹果) are sour? These kinds of apple(s)(这些种类的苹果) are sour. 10. “most / 百分数/分数/the rest/ the remainder + of +名词”结构要求动词与of后面的名词的单复数一致。 The rest of the story(故事的其余部分) needs no telling. He stayed in the classroom and the rest of the boys(其他的男孩们) were out at play. Three-fourths of the surface of the earth(地球表面 的四分之三) is sea. Three-fourths of the people (四分之三的人)were illiterate. Most of his time(他的大部分时间) is spent on traveling. Most of his students(他的大部分学生) like him. 11. “worth of + 名词”结构不论名词是单形还是复形 ,一般皆要求用单数动词,与worth一致。 The worth of this painting(这幅画的价值) is estimated at a half million dollars. The worth(价值) of men like Galileo is not always understood while they are alive. 注意:当worth表示金额时,其后的动词往往与其前 表金额的名词的数形一致。 Thousands of pounds’ worth(以千镑计的数额) of damage have been done to the apple crop. 六、短语、从句或句子作主语与动词的 一致 短语、从句或句子作主语时,一般要求用单数动词 。 No news is good news. (no news 为名词短语 ) Children’s interfering in their parents’ right to remarry has become a social problem.(主语为 一动名词复合结构) That he likes Mary is known to many of his friends.(主语为一名词性从句) “How do you do?” is not a question but a greeting.(主语是一句子) 注意:主语为what 引导的主语从句时,谓语 动词应与从句所指代的内容的单复数一致 。 What he says (他所说的) is not important. What I want(我所需要的) are details. 当what 引导的主语从句中谓语为复数时,全 句的谓语动词也应是复数。 What make the river more beautiful are the flowers growing in the water. 七、名词化的形容词和过去分词作主语 与动词的一致 名词化的形容词和过去分词作主语与动词的一 致应取决于主语的数。主语如表单数,就用 单数动词;主语如表复数,就用复数动词。 具体如下: 1. 主语表单数,谓语用单数。 The true(真实,表单数) is to be distinguished from the false. The accused(被告,表单数) was released. 2. 主语表复数,谓语用复数。 The poor (穷人,表一类人)are looked down upon by the rich. 3. 名词化的形容词或过去分词为复数形式,谓语用 复数。 The newlyweds(新婚夫妇,本身为复形) are now spending their honeymoon abroad. 4.集体名词一般按单数对待,但如果强调 其成员可以视为复数,如: His family is coming to meet him at the airport. The whole family were having supper when I dropped in. 常见的同种用法的集体名词有family, group, class, population等。但是police, people, cattle 作主语时, 谓语动词却都 要用复数形式。如: The police haven’t caught the thief yet. 八、代词与动词的一致 1. all / some / any / most用作主语时,随其数用单数 或复数动词。 All(事情,单数) is ready and all(人,复数) are here. I don’t think any is left.我认为没什么剩下。 I don’t think any of them(他们中没人) have seen her. Most of the building was destroyed but most were saved. 2. “each of + 复形名词”结构要求单数动词, 但“复形名词+ each”结构要求复数动词。 Each of the jobs(每一份工作) was planned by Billy. we each(我们每个人) have a copy of this dictionary. 3. every和everyone 一般要求用单数谓语; either一般要求用单数谓语,但在非正式文体 中, “either of +复形名/代词” 结构可用复数 动词。 Either method(任一种方法) is practical. Either of them(他们中任一人) are/is enough to drive me mad. 4. Many a +单数名词之后通常需用单数谓语。 Many a child comes from a big city. Many a child = Many children 5. neither/none 可用单数或复数动词 Neither of the books is /are satisfactory. None of us know / knows for certain. 6. 疑问代词what作主语时,谓语与其所含的数念一 致。当说话人不确知what的数念或不强调数念时 ,应用单数动词。 What’s on the table?桌上是什么? What are on the table? 桌上是些什么? What’s in the sky? 天上是什么? 九、数词与动词的一致 1. 语法一致 Two and two are four.(主语是Two and two ) Four from seven is three.(主语为four) Three times one is three.(主语为three, times被看成介词) 261 divided by 9 equals 29.(261是主语) 2. 意念的一致 Two and two is four.(将主语two and two 看成一个数目,故谓语单数) One half of the world’s population are Asians.(集体名词population在此指成员) 即学即练 1. Large quantities of water ____every day here while it is in great need in some faraway area. A. are being wasted B. is wasted C. have been wasted D. was wasted A 2. The writer and actor ____ invited to give us a report yesterday. A. are B. have been C. was D. were 3. Zhang’s family ____ rather big and his family ____ fond of music. A. is; are B. is; is C. are; is D. are; are C A 4. ____ of the land in that district ____ covered with trees and grass. A. Two fifth; is B. Two fifths; are C. Two fifth; are D. Two fifths; is 5. Since then the number of people taking driving lessons ____ 20%. A. has increased to B. increased by C. has increased by D. have increased by D C 6. Although many of the houses in the small town ____ still in need of repair, there ____lots of improvement in their appearance. A. are; has been B. is; have been C. is; are D. are; was A
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