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traditiondiscrimination

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Tradition Discrimination discrimin
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Unit 2Unit 2Part APart A Why They ExcelWhy They Excel 21st Century College English: Book 221st Century College English: Book 2 Unit 2: Part AUnit 2: Part A • • Pre-reading ActivitiesPre-reading Activities • • Intensive StudyIntensive Study • • ExercisesExercises • • AssignmentAssignment Pre-reading ActivitiesPre-reading Activities • • PreviewPreview • • Pre-reading ListeningPre-reading Listening WWhat hat is is the the aim aim of of education? education? This This question question depends depends completely completely on on culture. culture. Every Every society society has has a a set set of of deep deep cultural cultural attitudes attitudes that that are are clear clear to to the the majority majority of of its its members members – – so so clear, clear, in in fact, fact, that that they they may may seem seem like like the the only only right right way. way. And And the the deep deep cultural cultural attitudes attitudes of of any any society society are are reflected reflected in in its its system system of of education. education. The The three three texts texts in in this this unit unit explore explore some some of of the the different different ways ways culture culture affects affects education. education. Not Not only only surface surface differences differences like like the the content content of of the the lessons lessons or or whether whether the the students students stand stand up up when when the the teacher teacher enters enters the the room, room, but but also also on on deeper deeper levels levels that that are are rarely rarely discussed discussed or or even even thought thought about about — — until until two two cultures cultures meet meet in in a classroom.a classroom. Pre-reading Activities: PreviewPre-reading Activities: Preview PreviewPreview B B efore efore listening listening to to the the tape, tape, have have a a quick quick look look at at the the following following blanks blanks to to prepare prepare yourself yourself to to listen listen for the figures.for the figures. Pre-reading Activities: ListeningPre-reading Activities: Listening First ListeningFirst Listening Asian Asian and and Asian Asian Americans Americans make make up up only only ________ ________ of of the the US US population, population, but but they they come come up up to to ____________________ ____________________ of of the the undergraduates undergraduates at at Harvard, Harvard, _______ _______ at at MIT, MIT, _______ _______ at at Yale Yale and and _____________ at Berkley._____________ at Berkley. Check-upCheck-up Pre-reading Activities: ListeningPre-reading Activities: Listening First ListeningFirst Listening Asian Asian and and Asian Asian Americans Americans make make up up only only ________ ________ of of the the US US population, population, but but they they come come up up to to ____________________ ____________________ of of the the undergraduates undergraduates at at Harvard, Harvard, _______ _______ at at MIT, MIT, _______ _______ at at Yale Yale and and _____________ at Berkley._____________ at Berkley. 2.4%2.4% more than 17%more than 17% 18%18%16.5%16.5% over 27%over 27% R R ead the following words first to prepare yourself to ead the following words first to prepare yourself to answer the questions to the best of your ability.answer the questions to the best of your ability. Second ListeningSecond Listening talenttalentefforteffortmoneymoneyconcentration concentration ambitionambition intelligenceintelligencepressurepressuresacrificesacrifice traditiontradition discriminationdiscrimination Pre-reading Activities: ListeningPre-reading Activities: Listening Second ListeningSecond Listening — — Why are these statistics “amazing”?Why are these statistics “amazing”? — — What’s the explanation?What’s the explanation? ScriptScript Pre-reading Activities: ListeningPre-reading Activities: Listening Radio Radio AnnouncerAnnouncer: : Good Good evening evening ladies ladies and and gentlemen, gentlemen, and and welcome welcome to to Just Just Statistics, Statistics, our our weekly weekly collection collection of of odd odd statistical statistical facts. facts. Did Did you you know know that that Asians Asians and and Asian Asian Americans Americans make make up up only only 2.4 2.4 percent percent of of the the US US populationpopulation? ? 2.4 2.4 percent, percent, that’s that’s right. right. And And did did you you know know that that more more than than 17 17 percent percent of of the the undergraduates undergraduates at at HarvardHarvard are are Asians Asians and and Asian Asian Americans? Americans? IsnIsn’t ’t that that amazing! amazing! But But that’s that’s not not all: all: Asians Asians and and Asian Asian Americans Americans make make up up 18 18 percent percent of of the the student student body body at at MITMIT, , 16.5 16.5 percent percent at at Yale Yale and and over over 27 27 percent percent at at BerkeleyBerkeley! ! Those Those are are among among our our best best schools, schools, ladies ladies and and gentlemen gentlemen — — how how do do those those Asian Asian and and Asian Asian American students do it? American students do it? Pre-reading Activities: ListeningPre-reading Activities: Listening Intensive StudyIntensive Study Intensive StudyIntensive Study • • Difficult sentences Difficult sentences • • Key words, phrases well; poorly-educated poorly-educated Cambodian Cambodian refugee refugee children, children, for for instance, instance, often often need need special special help. help. And And many many Asian-Americans Asian-Americans resent resent being being labeledlabeled a a “model “model minority,” minority,” feeling feeling that that this this is is reverse reverse discrimination discrimination by by white white Americans Americans – – a a contrast contrast to to the the laws laws that that excluded excluded most most Asian Asian immigrantsimmigrants from the US until 1965, but prejudice nevertheless. from the US until 1965, but prejudice nevertheless. Intensive StudyIntensive Study 7 7 The The young young Asians’ Asians’ achievements achievements have have led led to to a a series series of of fascinating fascinating studies. studies. Perhaps Perhaps the the most most disturbing disturbing results results come come from from the the research research carried carried out out by by a a University University of of Michigan Michigan psychologist, psychologist, Harold Harold W. W. Stevenson, Stevenson, who who has has compared compared more more than than 7,000 7,000 students students in in kindergarten, kindergarten, first first grade, grade, third third grade grade and and fifth fifth grade grade in in Chicago Chicago and and Minneapolis Minneapolis with with counterpartscounterparts in in Beijing, Beijing, Taipei Taipei and and Sendai. Sendai. On On a battery of math tests, the Americans did worst at all grade levels. a battery of math tests, the Americans did worst at all grade levels. 8 8 Stevenson Stevenson found found no no differences differences in in IQ. IQ. But But if if the the differences differences in in performance performance are are showing showing up up in in kindergarten, kindergarten, it it suggests suggests something something is happening in the family, even before the children get to school. is happening in the family, even before the children get to school. Intensive StudyIntensive Study 9 9 It It is is here here that that various various researchers’ researchers’ different different studies studies convergeconverge: : Asian Asian parents parents are are motivating motivating their their children children better. better. “The “The bottom bottom lineline is, Asian kids work hard,” Stevenson says.is, Asian kids work hard,” Stevenson says. 1010The The real real question, question, then, then, is is how how Asian Asian parents parents imbue imbue their their offspring offspring with with this this kind kind of of motivationmotivation. . Stevenson’s Stevenson’s study study suggests suggests a a critical critical answer. answer. When When asked asked why why they they think think their their children children do do well, well, most most Asian Asian parents parents said said “hard “hard work.” work.” By By contrast, contrast, American American parents said “talent.”parents said “talent.” Intensive StudyIntensive Study 1111 “ “From From what what I I can can see,see,” ” criticizes criticizes Stevenson, Stevenson, “ “wewe’ ’veve lost lost our our faith faith in in the the idea idea that that we we can can all all get get ahead ahead in in life life through through hard hard work. work. Instead, Instead, Americans Americans now now believe believe that that some some kids kids have have what what it it takes takes and and some some dondon’ ’t t. . So So we we start start dividing dividing up up classes classes into into ‘ ‘fast fast learnerslearners’ ’ and and ‘ ‘slow slow learnerslearners’ ’, , whereaswhereas the the Chinese Chinese and and Japanese Japanese feel feel all all children can succeed in the same children can succeed in the same curriculumcurriculum. .” ” Intensive StudyIntensive Study 1212 This This belief belief in in hard hard work work is is the the first first of of three three main main factors factors contributing contributing to to Asian Asian students’ students’ outstanding outstanding performance. performance. It It springs springs fromfrom Asians’ Asians’ common common heritage heritage of of Confucianism, Confucianism, the the philosophy philosophy of of the the 5th-century-BC 5th-century-BC Chinese Chinese sage sage whose whose teachings teachings have have had had a a profound profound influence influence on on Chinese Chinese society. society. One One of of Confucius’s Confucius’s primary primary teachings is that through effort, people can perfect themselves. teachings is that through effort, people can perfect themselves. Intensive StudyIntensive Study 1313Confucianism Confucianism provides provides another another important important ingredient ingredient in in the the Asians’ Asians’ success success as as well. well. In In Confucian Confucian philosophy, philosophy, the the family family plays plays a a central central role role — — an an orientation orientation that that leads leads people people to to work work for for the the honor honor of of the the family, family, not not just just for for themselves. themselves. One One can can never never repay repay one’s one’s parents, parents, and and there’s there’s a a sense sense of of obligation obligation or or even even guilt guilt that that is is as as strong strong a a force force among among Asians Asians as as Protestant Protestant philosophy philosophy is is in in the the West. West. Intensive StudyIntensive Study 1414 There’s There’s yet yet another another major major factor factor in in this this bond bond between between Asian Asian parents parents and and their their children. children. During During the the 15 15 years years I I lived lived in in China, China, Japan, Japan, and and Vietnam, Vietnam, I I noticed noticed that that Asian Asian parents parents establish establish a a closer closer physical physical tie tie to to their their infants infants than than most most parents parents in in the the United United StatesStates. . When When I I let let my my baby baby daughter daughter crawl crawl on on the the floor, floor, for for example, example, my my Chinese Chinese friends friends were were horrified horrified and and rushed rushed to to pick pick her her up. up. We We think think this this constant constant attention attention is is old-fashioned old-fashioned or or even even unhealthy, unhealthy, but but for for Asians, it’s highly effective. Asians, it’s highly effective. 1515 Can Can we we learn learn anything anything from from the the Asians? Asians? “ “I I’ ’m m not not naive naive enough enough to to think think everything everything in in Asia Asia can can be be transplanted,transplanted,” ” says says Stevenson. Stevenson. But he offered three recommendations.But he offered three recommendations. Intensive StudyIntensive Study 1616“ “To To start start with,” with,” he he says, says, “we “we need need to to set set higher higher standards standards for for our our kids. kids. WeWe wouldnwouldn’t ’t expect expect them them to to become become professional professional athletes athletes without practicing hard.”without practicing hard.” 1717 Second, Second, American American parents parents need need to to become become more more committed committed to to their their children’s children’s educationeducation, , he he declares. declares. “Being “Being understanding understanding when when a a childchild doesndoesn’t ’t do do wellwell isnisn’t ’t enough.” enough.” Stevenson Stevenson found found that that Asian Asian parents parents spend spend more more time time helping helping their their children children with with homework homework or or writing to their teachers than American parents do.writing to their teachers than American parents do. Intensive StudyIntensive Study 1818And, And, third, third, our our schools schools could could be be reorganized reorganized in in simple simple but but effective effective ways, ways, says says Stevenson. Stevenson. Nearly Nearly 90 90 percent percent of of Chinese Chinese youngsters youngsters say say they they actually actually enjoy enjoy school, school, and and 60 60 percent percent can’t can’t wait wait forfor school school vacations vacations to to end. end. This This is is a a vastly vastly more more positive positive attitude attitude than than youngsters youngsters in in the the US US express. express. One One reason reason may may be be that that students students in in China China and and Japan Japan typically typically have have a a break break after after each each class, class, helping them to relax and to increase their helping them to relax and to increase their attention spansattention spans. . Intensive StudyIntensive Study 19 “I don’t think Asians are any smarter,” says Don Lee, an Asian -American student at Berkeley. “There are brilliant Americans in my chemistry class. But the Asian students work harder. I see a lot of wasted potential among the Americans.” (975 Words) Intensive StudyIntensive Study passagepassage n.n. — — (cost of a ticket for) a journey by ship or plane from (cost of a ticket for) a journey by ship or plane from one place to anotherone place to another e.g.e.g. • • He is too poor to afford a He is too poor to afford a passagepassage home. home. • • Oliver has booked a Oliver has booked a passagepassage to New York. to New York. safetysafety n.n. —— a place where one is safe from a particular dangera place where one is safe from a particular danger e.g.e.g. • • The firefighters were busy helping survivors to The firefighters were busy helping survivors to safetysafety. . • • They ran to They ran to safetysafety, away from the fire., away from the fire. make it (to s
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