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【精品文档】53中英文双语英语翻译专业外文文献翻译成品:在翻译中迷失?译者在国际商务中的文化、语言与角色

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外文标题:Lost in translation? Culture, language and the role of the translator in international business外文作者:John Blenkinsopp and Maryam Shademan Pajouh文献出处: 《Critical Perspectives on International Business》 , 2018 , 6 (1) :38-52(如觉得年份太老,可改为近2年,毕竟很多毕业生都这样做) 英文3189单词, 17020字符(字符就是印刷符),中文5098汉字。此文档是毕业设计外文翻译成品( 含英文原文+中文翻译),无需调整复杂的格式!下载之后直接可用,方便快捷!本文价格不贵,也就几十块钱!一辈子也就一次的事!Lost in translation? Culture, language and the role of the translatorin international businessJohn Blenkinsopp and Maryam Shademan PajouhTeesside University Business School, UKAbstractPurpose Issues of language in international business have been the focus of a growing body of theoretical and empirical work, and this paper contributes to this literature, focusing specifically on issues of translation. The role of translator will vary depending on the language strategy adopted, with strategies linked to differing perspectives on language in international business – mechanical, cultural and political. We examine these perspectives through the lens of a specific problem for transnational communication – „untranslatable‟ words and concepts.Design/methodology/approach Interviews were conducted withprofessional linguists (translators and interpreters) to explore how they dealt with issues of untranslatable but cultural salient words in their day-to- day work with international businesses, using the problems of translating the Farsi word tarouf into English as a case in point.Findings The linguists agreed that tarouf was an untranslatable word, anddescribed their strategies to deal with this problem. The commoneststrategy was avoidance, stemming from linguists‟ concern to maintain their professional standing with clients, a finding which reflects an emerging emphasis on the importance of context and relationships forunderstanding inter-cultural communication.Practical implications The study highlights the crucial role of the translator in international business, and draws attention to the potential for cross-cultural communication problems arising from mutual lack of awareness of culturally-salient but inherently untranslatable words or phrases.Social implications Effective inter-cultural communication is an issue ofgreat importance to wider society, and business has historically been the commonest site of such communication. Our study highlights an issue of considerable importance for improving inter-cultural communications, contributing to a growing inter-disciplinary literature in this area.Originality/value Much of the research on language in internationalbusiness has focused on the emergence of English as a lingua franca, but the present study focuses on specific issues of translation and does so in an under-researched location, Iran. It draws attention to a problem of translation not widely discussed, and shows how important this issue can be for international business.Keywords: international business; interpreters; language; tarouf; translators; cross-cultural communicationIntroductionThe multinational corporation (MNC) is, by definition, a multilingual organisation (Fredriksson et al, 2006) and multilingual situations occurwith increasing regularity at various levels of the organisation (Charles andMarschan-Piekkari, 2002). Though issues of communication within MNCs have been a concern within the field of international business for an extended period, the specific issue of language was neglected until relatively recently (Janssens et al, 2004; Welch et al, 2005). A possible explanation is that international business practice has also been somewhat blind to this issue – though the practicalities of language barriers were widely recognised, the full implications of „talking a different language‟ were not. Welch and Welch suggest language is „a mental model, framing activity and behaviour‟ (2008: 341), and these framing effects can be visible even at the level of a single word. An example is offered by Wierzbicka‟s (2001) examination of the Polish word przykro. Usually translated as hurt, offended, sorry or sad, Wierzbicka suggests something is lost in translation, describing przyko as a „culturally salien Polish emotion. „That is not to say that speakers of English never experience the emotion associated in Polish with the word przykro; only that they do not think habitually about their experiences in these terms‟(Wierzbicka, 2001: 22). The Chinese word guanxi offers another obvious example of a word which is both culturally salient and yet inherently „untranslatable‟. Gaunxi has become widely known – discussed and researched to a point where there is a degree of awareness of the concept and its importance in international business. Linguistic imperialismMuch of the literature on the role of language in international business has focused on two particular features. The first is the decisions made by MNCs regarding language use, particularly around choices as to whether to adopt a corporate lingua franca (and if so, which language to adopt)and related issues of translation and interpretation. The second is thestudy of the growth of English as a lingua franca, through linguistic imperialism (Philipson, 1992). Though a complex notion, linguistic imperialism is usefully captured as the process by which speakers of onelanguage come to feel it necessary to use another language, „to the point where they believe they can and should use only that foreign language when it comes to transactions dealing with the more advanced aspects of life‟ (Ansre, 1979, cited in Sliwe, 2008). Ansre is clearly describing a final outcome, and the process of linguistic imperialism is likely to be highly contested. Though the present article is focused on issues of translation in international business, the rise of English as a lingua franca through linguistic imperialism forms an important backdrop our study, and we will briefly explore this literature.Language barriers in international businessThese issues of translation can obviously be viewed as a language barrier for international business, but Harzing and Feely (2008) argue that the idea of „language barriers‟ has been rather under-defined. They propose a model of communication in which different components contribute to a vicious circle which creates the language barrier – failure to communicate effectively leads to uncertainty, anxiety and mistrust, which produces misattribution, conflict and cognitive distortion, to which the various parties respond by engaging in greater formality in communication, which is less effective...and the circle is completed. Their model focuses on the HQ- subsidiary relationship in MNCs, but the idea that communication problems arising from language differences might produce a vicious circle seems relevant to a range of settings within international business.Jameson argues that language „defines cultural groups, as well as being the most frequently used symbolic systems through which culture is conveyed‟ (2007: 214), and as such it is core to cross-cultural communication in all settings. One of the key issues which led us to examine the issue of „untranslatable‟ words is that they are likely to lead to situations in which the failure to communicate effectively is either not recognised, or is recognised but baffling to the parties involved.Translation StudiesIn this section we want to examine some of the key ideas in the field of translation studies which might shed light on the present study, though it is useful to recall Nida‟s point that many translators will not draw upon theory in any conscious fashion:Instead of speaking of theories of translation, we should perhapsspeak more about various approaches to the task of translating, different orientations which provide helpful insight, and diverse ways of talking about how a message can be transferred from onelanguage to another.(Nida, 1991: 21).We can see that the translator has a key role to play in this process, but Pym (2006) notes that until recently the field of translation studies has paid relatively little attention to their role as mediators. It should be noted that although we have used translator as a generic term, it is more preciseto use this to refer to those who translate the written word. Translators of the spoken word are more commonly referred to as interpreters, and Pym(2006) suggests that the importance of the mediating role is more obviousand immediate for interpreters. Consistent with this, our findings suggest that the issue of untranslatable words presents more of a problem for interpreters than translators.An overview of TaroufTarouf („tar-off’) is a Farsi word which describes a complex cultural construct. Three different English-Farsi dictionaries offer the following translations:- salutation, compliment, comity, chivalry- compliment, ceremony, offer, present- compliment(s), ceremony, offer, gift, flummery, courtesy, flattery,formality, good manners, soft tongue, honeyed phrases.Many of these words have only limited relation to each other, and this is because they can be seen as facets of tarouf, and the kinds of behaviours associated with it. Two examples illustrate tarouf more effectively than these definitions. The first is an Iranian joke:Many years ago, a young Persian woman became pregnant. Themonths passed and she kept getting bigger, finally nine months came but no baby came out. She kept getting bigger and bigger…but still no baby! Years went by until she became an old woman with a huge belly. Finally the doctors had a machine that could look into her belly and see what was going on in there. They looked inside and saw two men with beards saying to each other, ‘after you’, ‘no, after you’, ‘no please, after you’.A second example was told to us by an Iranian about his cousin, born inthe UK of Iranian parents, who made his first visit to Iran in his early 20s.He took a taxi back to the airport, and he and the driver chatted for the whole of the journey. When he got to the airport he asked the driver to tell him the fare, but the driver said there was no charge, it had been a pleasure to talk with him. My cousin didn’t know about tarouf, so he took this at face value, thanked him profusely and left!The driver, despite no doubt being aghast at this turn of events, let him go.This illustrates that tarouf is deeply culturally embedded – the driver could ill afford to offer a free fare for such a long journey, yet faced with a customer who did not recognise the conventions of tarouf he felt unable to step outside of them and demand the fare.MethodIn order to explore the idea of tarouf as an „untranslatable‟ word, we interviewed translators working in English and Farsi. We were unable to secure access to translators through agencies, who appeared concerned our approach was a ruse to gain access to translators without paying an agency fee. We therefore adopted a snowball sampling approach, going directly to individual translators based in Iran, and asking them torecommend other potential participants for us to contact. Clearly the study was premised on our claim that tarouf is untranslatable, so we initially asked all participants whether they agreed with that assertion. All confirmed that it was so, and we proceeded to explore the three empirical questions listed above via in-depth telephone interviews with 31individuals – 16 translators (5 men, 11 women) and 14 interpreters (12men, 2 women). Six of the interpreters were interviewed twice, and were also sent follow-up e-mails seeking clarification of key points. It was not possible to record the interviews so we were unable to produce transcripts, however detailed notes were taken. The opportunity for follow-up interviews and e-mails provided a further rigour to the data gathering process. The question of the implications for international business communication was something upon which they could provide some insight, but we decided to compare their views to those of practising managers so after completing the interviews with the translators, we undertook telephone interviews with five managers (three Iranian, two British) working for MNCs in Iran. The data analysis approached adopted was somewhat simplistic, in that we treated the participants‟ response as reporting fact, rather than as texts for analysis. FindingsHow do you deal with the word tarouf in your work?Though the concept of tarouf permeates all Iranian writing and speech, the word itself will occur relatively infrequently in the kinds of business documents which translators handle. They were initially rather defensive when we asked them about the difficulties in translating tarouf. Once they understood we were not criticising their practice, but interested in how they dealt with the problem, they explained that where possible they would seek a word which captured as far as possible the particular element of tarouf which was relevant in that passage. (Note: if the translated passages were then subjected to back translation, often seen as the acid test of good translation, the second translator would almost certainly not translate any of these words as „tarouf‟). The challenge of translation posed by tarouf was not confined to the word itself. There are what might be called „tarouf phrases‟, expressions of politeness which serve a „phatic function‟ (Tietze, 2007), that is, a function in maintaining social relationships. DiscussionThe first is that translators have a clear view on how to handle the issue of untranslatable words. They generally choose either to find the closest approximation in the target language, or to ignore the word altogether. Only when neither option seems possible do they choose to raise the issue of the untranslatable nature of a word or phrase, and on such occasions they will provide an explanation of the cultural context in order to help the audience understand what the author/speaker is attempting to convey. The fact they engage in such explanations only when deemed unavoidableappears to arise from a concern about the impact of this on theirprofessional image. ConclusionThis study highlights the significance of „untranslatable‟ words in multi- cultural communications, and the crucial mediating role of the translator/interpreter in international business communication. Our participants‟description of their practice reflected elements of all three perspectives on language use – mechanical, cultural and political – described by Janssens et al (2004). Their core practice remained wedded to the mechanical perspective, as they attempted to render documents or speech between Farsi and English as accurately as possible. The „untranslatable‟ nature of tarouf tested this preferred way of working to its limits, but only in certain circumstances did they choose to provide their clients w
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