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【精品文档】92中英文双语汉语言文学专业毕业设计外文文献翻译成品:夜晚焚香对《金瓶梅》中吴月娘的解读

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此文档是毕业设计外文翻译成品( 含英文原文+中文翻译),无需调整复杂的格式!下载之后直接可用,方便快捷!本文价格不贵,也就几十块钱!一辈子一次的事!外文标题:Burning Incense at Night: A Reading of Wu Yueniang in Jin Ping Mei外文作者:Jianjun He文献出处:Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews (CLEAR) Vol. 29 (Dec., 2018), pp. 85-103(如觉得年份太老,可改为近2年,毕竟很多毕业生都这样做)英文2278单词,14230字符(字符就是印刷符),中文3500汉字。Burning Incense at Night: A Reading of Wu Yueniang in Jin Ping MeiJianjun HeIntroductionModern readers of the Ming novel Jin Ping Mei have an ambivalent view of Zhang Zhupo's (1670-1698) commentary to the novel. While his aesthetic reading of the novel is still influential and highly admired by modem scholars, Zhang Zhupo's moral judgments on some characters can be seen as excessive. This is especially true of his indictment of Wu Yueniang -the primary wife of Ximen Qing - whom Zhang Zhupo criticizes for being shrewd, insincere and manipulative. This condemnation is largely based on a scene in chapter 21 of Jin Ping Mei in which Wu Yueniang performs the ritual of burning incense at night, a popular ritual practice in the Ming period in which women expressed their wishes under the moonlight, and prays for an heir for their husband. This scene is crucial for understanding both Zhang Zhupo's reading of Wu Yueniang and the narrative's portrayal of her character. Below, I attempt to analyze this episode through a discussion of the literary convention of the ritual. I argue that Zhang Zhupo's criticism of Wu Yueniang in this scene is warranted and that a reproachful overtone is implicit in the novel's portrayal of her character. My goal is not simply to reaffirm the moral values this Qing commentator imposed on the text, but rather to demonstrate the sophisticated construction of the novel and the density of its authorial control through a close analysis of a specific episode.Many readers of Jin Ping Mei are aware of Zhang Zhupo's reliance on and indebtedness to the earlier Chongzhen (1628-1644) commentary to the novel. But one respect in which the two commentators' views differ is their readings of the female characters and descriptions of sexual behaviors. The Chongzhen commentator is often sympathetic towards women and excuses their acts, even when they clearly transgress late-imperial social norms. He is more likely to appreciate women's expressions of desire or express admiration for their sexuality than to pass moral judgment on them. To the Chongzhen commentator, the novel is a justification of human sentiments and desires rather than a call to moral concern. His ideological interests evince the late-Ming cult of qing and its devaluing of neo-Confucian moral instruction. Zhang Zhupo, in contrast, reads the novel essentially as a didactic book. Projecting male elites, the potential editors and writers of morally didactic fiction, as his ideal readers, Zhang Zhupo exhaustively trains his readers to explore the moral depths of the novel. In his Jin Ping Mei dufa (How to read Jin Ping Mei), he expresses his worries about the readers' inability to understand the true meaning of the novel, the theme of frustrated filial piety (ku xiao ),and warns them not to be contaminated by the sexual desire and obscenity depicted in the book. In order to orient the readers' moral compass, Zhang Zhupo often takes a misogynistic approach. He blames women for the wrongdoings of the male characters and, by extension, the corruption of both the family and society. In contrast to the Chongzhen commentator's sympathy towards female characters, Zhang Zhupo jokes at their sexual sufferings and celebrates their violent deaths as just deserts for their licentious behavior. As Ding Naifei argues, Zhang Zhupo imposes on his male readers a method of becoming moral by sacrificing women. Burning Incense in Jin Ping MeiAll of the motifs discussed above are exploited in the Jin Ping Mei episode in chapter 21. The first is voyeurism. In Xixiang ji and Dongqiang ji, Zhang Junrui7s and Ma Wenfu's voyeuristic intentions are disclosed through their monologues; in each incident there are walls over which they steal a glimpse of the women they love. These common elements of the voyeuristic motif—a monologue, a wall, and the act of stolen glances-are adopted in Jin Ping Mei. When Ximen Qing notices the gate is half open he thinks, "there is something strange about this." He then hides behind the painted screen (fenbi )to watch what is going to happen. Similar to the gardens in the dramas, the courtyard in Ximen Qing's household is also a stage upon which Wu Yueniang displays her chastity. Her performance of the ritual immediately causes Ximen Qing to realize her merit as his legitimate wife and to regret his resentment toward her. Ironically, Wu Yueniang7s wifely virtue (Jude )is appreciated through an indecent act-voyeurism.As discussed previously, manipulative female characters initiate a chain of actions in which the male protagonist responds to their presence first through voyeurism and then through seduction. In his commentaries, Zhang Zhupo frequently discusses Wu Yueniang7s action of burning incense at night as "false" (jia )• In addition to this, Zhang Zhupo believes that Wu Yueniang's prayer is a "cunning trick" (jianmou ) instigated by the Buddhist nun Wang Guzi • As he points out in later chapters, Wu Yueniang secretly asks the nun for fertility drugs, which Zhang Zhupo uses as evidence to argue that Wu Yueniang's prayer for an heir is in fact a deception. Although Zhang Zhupo's criticism seems overly harsh, some details in the scene may pique the reader's suspicions. The open gate in the episode is critical; it stops Ximen Qing on his regular route and enables the plot to proceed. This gate, the yimen,is the second gate in Ximen Qing's house. In a traditional Chinese house, the yimen separates the outer hall (the waiting),where guests are received, from the inner hall (the neiting ),where family members live. In Ximen Qing's house, Wu Yueniang's room, the upper apartment (shangfang ,is located just inside the yimen. Pan Jinlian and Li Ping'er ,Ximen Qing's favored wives, live in the garden; the gate to the garden is right next to the yimen. Because of this, Ximen Qing does not have to enter the yimen if he wants to go Pan Jinlian or Li Ping'er's apartments.Before the episode in chapter 21 in which Wu Yueniang bums incense at night, Ximen Qing and Wu Yueniang have had a quarrel over his marriage to Li Ping'er and they refuse to talk to each other. After the quarrel, Ximen Qing spends several nights in Li Ping'er,s chamber. In this context, it is clear that the yimen leading to Wu Yueniang's chamber should be closed. When we see the gate half open, we are no less surprised than Ximen Qing. Since the narrative establishes how careful Wu Yueniang is about the gate in later chapters, the yimen must have been left open for a specific purpose. The Chongzhen commentator rightly points out Wu Yueniang's intention: "it was only because he had such a suspicion that he came to a stop"(/PM, 297).Having successfully stopped Ximen Qing and drawn his attention, the next crucial step for Wu Yueniang is how to present herself and reasonably display her wifely virtue at night and in the courtyard. The most convenient and convincing excuse for this is the ritual of burning incense at night. In such a setting, Wu Yueniang's display of her innermost feelings and Ximen Qing's consequent gratitude both seem natural and genuine. Yet there are still some problems in the scene. Some details in the Jin Ping Mei cihua text suggest that there is something deliberate in Wu Yueniang’s actions. The first suspicious thing is that she verbalizes her oath that she would pray for her husband without his knowledge (man zhe erfufa xin、).邓 This articulation of the privacy (therefore sincerity) of her prayer seems odd, unless Wu Yueniang knows that her intended audience, Ximen Qing, is secretly observing her. The second suspicious detail is the poem attached after Wu Yueniang's prayer. In traditional Chinese fiction, and in Jin Ping Mei in particular, poems provide important structural and semantic functions. Placed at the beginning of a chapter, they set the tone; placed at the end, they summarize the narrative themes. Poems embedded within the narrative mark the conclusion of an event and offer a commentary on the event or character in question. The poems in the cihua edition and the Chongzhen/Zhang Zhupo edition are identical except for the last line. The cihua edition reads:As she slips out of her chamber the night air is cool;Fragrant mist fills the courtyard, the moon glimmers bright.Bowing to Heaven, she spills out all her heartfelt desires;Quite unaware that anyone might be listening beyond the wall.An interesting contrast is set up in this episode, as focalized through Ximen Qing's gaze: his favorite prostitute Li Guijie's betrayal and his alienated wife Wu Yueniang's devotion. Li Guijie's infidelity towards Ximen Qing paves the way for his appreciation of Wu Yueniang's loyalty. The event in the brothel compels a narrative shift from an outside space-the brothel-into the courtyard of Ximen Qing's mansion. Li Guijie's betrayal also fills Ximen Qing's heart with anger, an emotion that contrasts with his later gratitude toward his wife. The narrative uses the same pattern to reveal the different secrets of the two women: their disloyalty and loyalty have to be discovered by Ximen Qing's voyeurism. In each place the women are hiding behind part of a building, in a room or in a closed courtyard, but the porous boundaries of the buildings enable Ximen Qing's voyeurism. The half-opened gate at his home ignites his suspicion, ultimately revealing the actions of his wife. The ritual of burning incense at night is a performance through which the woman, Wu Yueniang, reveals her innermost heart and the man, Ximen Qing, discovers it. The story so far fits neatly into the conventional function of ritual in Chinese culture. Ritual is, fundamentally, a public presentation that is designed to enable and shape communication among the different parties of a relationship and thus naturally involves performance and observation. Ideally, ritual brings harmony to the multiple levels of relationships.ConclusionAs a woman, Wu Yueniang should follow certain expectations for her behavior. Being a primary wife, she is expected to serve as a model for other women in the family. Traditional morals require women to serve their husbands, and they are also expected to advise their husbands appropriately. To do so, women must "rectify their appearance and dignify their manner" (zhengse duancao )as instructed in the famous Nil jie written by Ban Zhao (48?-116?). Women must use their decency, dignity and virtue to serve and to assist their husbands. Any behavior contrary to this ideal is not merely considered transgressive but is, more seriously, condemned as morally corrupt.Zhang Zhupo clearly believes that Wu Yueniang is responsible for Ximen Qing's lascivious and unrestrained lifestyle. Wu Yueniang fails to advise her husband to avoid sensuality and associate with virtuous men .4G This condemnation is measured by the traditional allegory of the household as a microcosm of the empire, in which a wife's advice to her husband is equated with the admonition of a minister to the emperor. In addition to this, Zhang Zhupo criticizes Wu Yueniang as avaricious and manipulative, hateful (kehen ),crafty (quanzha ),and shrewd (laojian juhua ;JPM, 795, 295, 942). To Zhang Zhupo, her most serious crime is breaking traditional family rules and corrupting her household. For example, in Zhang Zhupo's view, the incestuous relationship between Pan Jinlian and Chen Jingji is actually made possible by Wu Yueniang because she ignores the traditional family rules of segregating the sexes and initiates the invitation to Chen to enter the rear compound of the household-the women's quarters-and thus provides opportunities for illicit contact between son-in-law and mother-in-law. Moreover, similar to her husband Ximen Qing, Wu Yueniang's actions regularly break down the orderly containment of the household. She frequently invites Buddhist nuns, matchmakers, and midwives (sangu liupo)women whose professions are either disreputable or heterodox—to come to her home and pollute that space.In his commentary, Zhang Zhupo often claims that the author of Jin Ping Mei uses the Chunqiu style, in which criticism is implicit, to condemn Wu Yueniang. This is particularly true of the episode discussed here. With full knowledge of the literary convention of burning incense at night and its associated themes, traditional readers of Jin Ping Mei would have immediately seen the parody implied when Wu Yueniang, the legitimate wife of Ximen Qing, uses the very same tactic to seduce her own husband. 夜晚焚香:对《金瓶梅》中吴月娘的解读Jianjun He介绍对于明代小说《金瓶梅》,关于张竹坡(1670-1698)对该小说的点评,现代的读者有一个矛盾的看法。虽然张竹坡对小说的审美解读至今仍具有一定的影响,而且受到现代学者的高度推崇,但他对某些人物的道德判断却有些过激。尤其是他对吴月娘的控诉,也就是西门庆的正房妻子,张竹坡评论到她很狡猾、不真诚和控制欲强。这种谴责在很大程度上是基于一个场景,也就是在金瓶梅第21章中吴月娘晚上进行的焚香仪式,而这种仪式在明朝时期的女性中很受欢迎,她们是在月光下表达了她们的愿望,祈祷能为其丈夫生下一个继承人。这一幕场景对于理解张竹坡对吴月娘的解读以及对吴月娘性格的叙事刻画都是至关重要的。接下来,我试图通过对仪式的文学惯例的讨论来分析这一事件。我认为,张竹坡在这一幕中对吴月娘的批评是有根据的,小说中对吴月娘性格的刻画隐含着一种责备的意味。本文的目的不是简单地重申这位清代评论家强加于小说的道德评价,而是通过对一个具体情节的仔细分析,展示小说的复杂结构及作者含蓄的表达。许多金瓶梅的读者都知道张竹坡对早些时候崇祯(1628 - 1644)评论这部小说的依赖和继承。但两位评论家观点不同的一个方面是他们对书中女性角色的解读和对性行为的描述。崇祯评论的观点是经常同情女性,并为她们的行为辩解,即使她们明显违反了明朝晚期的社会规范。他更有可能欣赏女性对欲望的表达,或对她们的性取向表示钦佩,而不是对她们做出道德批判。对于崇祯的点评来说,这部小说是对人类情感和欲望的辩护,而不是道德关怀的呼唤。他意识形态的兴趣点引起了中国明晚期对十青的狂热崇拜以及对新儒家道德指令的蔑视。相比之下,张竹坡读这本小说时,基本上是把它当做一本说教书。张竹坡以男性精英、道德说教小说的潜在读者作家为理想的读者,让其读者对小说的道德深度进行详尽的了解。在他的著作《金瓶梅的读法》中(如何阅读金瓶梅),他表示他担心读者无法理解小说的真正含义,无法理解苦孝的含义,并警告他们不要被书中的性欲和淫秽的描述所影响。为了给读者的道德罗盘指明方向,张竹坡经常采取一种厌恶女性的态度示人。他指责女性犯下了男性角色容易犯的错误,进而导致家庭和社会的堕落。与崇祯对女性角色同情的论点形成鲜明的对比,张竹坡拿女性角色的性痛苦开起了玩笑,并把她们的暴力死亡当作是对她们淫乱行为的应得惩罚。正如丁乃飞所言张竹坡向他的男性读者灌输了一种通过牺牲女性而变得道德的方法。金瓶梅小说中的焚香仪式以上讨论的所有问题都在《金瓶梅》中第21章中体现出来的。首先是窥阴癖。在《西乡记》和《东强记》中,张君瑞和马文福的窥淫意图是通过他们的独白来揭示的;在每一个事件中,都有一堵墙让他们偷窥他们所爱的女人。这些偷窥主题的共同元素是独白、墙壁和偷窥的眼神,这些全部被《金瓶梅》采用。当西门庆看到大门半开着时,他想:“这有点奇怪。”然后他隐藏背后的粉壁看会发生什么。西门庆家的庭院与剧中的园林相似,也是吴月娘展示贞操的舞台。她的行为立即使西门庆意识到她作为他的合法妻子的价值,并后悔他对她的怨恨。具有讽刺意味的是,吴月娘妻的婦德是通过一个下流的窥阴癖者的行为来体现。如前所述,控制欲强的女性会引发一系列行为,其中男主角首先通过窥阴癖,然后通过诱惑来回应他们的存在。在他的评论中,张竹坡经常讨论到吴月娘晚上烧香的行动被看做是一种很假的行为。此外,张竹坡相信吴月娘的祷告是一个“狡猾的诡计”,其实是用以煽动尼姑王姑子。在后面的章节中,他指出吴月娘偷偷问修女避孕的药,张竹坡以此作为证据认为吴月娘祈祷为丈夫生一个继承人实际上是一个欺骗。虽然张竹坡的批评似乎过于严厉,但场景中的一些细节可能会引起读者的怀疑。这一章中敞开的大门是至关重要的;它阻止了西门庆的常规路线,使情节得以继续。这个门,也就是义门,这是西门庆房子的第二个门。在中国传统的房屋结构中,义门是与外大厅(等待夕卜庭)相分离的,是收留客人的地方,而内厅(内庭)是家庭成员居住的地方。在西门庆房子中,吴月娘的房间,是上房,正是坐落在义门里。潘金莲和李瓶兒,是西门庆最受宠的妻子,住在花园里;花园的大门就在义门旁边。正因为如此,如果西门庆想去潘金莲或李瓶兒的住所,他不必进入义门。在金瓶梅第21章吴月娘晚上烧香的情节发生前,西门庆和吴月娘因李平儿的婚事发生了争执,对方互不搭理。争吵之后,西门庆在李平儿的房间里住了几个晚上。在这种背景下,很明显,通往吴月娘房间的义门应该被关闭。当我们看到大门半开着的时候,我们和西门庆一样惊讶。由于故事在后面的章节中表现出了吴月娘对大门的谨慎态度,她据此认为义门一定是为了某一个特定的目的而敞开着。崇祯点评道吴月娘的意图:“只是因为他有这样的怀疑,他又必须点到为止”(/PM,297)。在成功地阻止了西门庆并引起了他的注意之后,吴月娘下一步的关键问题是如何在夜晚和庭院中展现自己,以一种合适的方式展示作为妻子的美德。最方便、最令人信服的手段便是在晚上进行焚香的活动。在这样的背景下,吴
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