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【精品文档】100中英文双语毕业设计关于花园公园园林景观设计的外文文献翻译成品:景观设计以及公园用户的喜爱偏好

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此文档是毕业设计外文翻译成品( 含英文原文+中文翻译),无需调整复杂的格式!下载之后直接可用,方便快捷!本文价格不贵,也就几十块钱!一辈子一次的事!外文标题:Landscape Design and Park Users' Preferences外文作者:Basak Ozer , Mehmet Emin Baris文献出处:Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences.2018.82:604-607(如觉得年份太老,可改为近2年,毕竟很多毕业生都这样做)英文2001单词,10247字符(字符就是印刷符),中文3258汉字。Landscape Design and Park Users' PreferencesBasak Ozer , Mehmet Emin BarisBasak Ozer: ITU Landscape Architecture Department,Taskisla Caddesi, ITU Mimarlik Fakultesi, Taksim-Istanbul 34437, Turkey Mehmet Emin Baris: Ankara University Landscape Architecture Department,Ankara Universitesi Ziraat Fakultesi, Diskapi-Ankara 06110, TurkeyAbstractLandscape design is described as the design of areas; it consists of the results of interaction and action of human and/or natural-cultural factors, by bringing together science and art, and is associated with human psychology in the processes, both of their design and use.The main aim of this study is the identification of user preferences in urban landscape design studies, according to psychological developmental stages (age). Accordingly, this study aims to conduct a survey in the biggest district of Ankara, Qankaya, to reveal the preferences of each age group, with regard to the characteristics of hard and soft landscape elements.Keywords: Landscape Design,Park Users’ Preferences,Human Pschology, Parks, Ages.IntroductionThe user and their psychology are two of the main factors in landscape design, which is defined as the design of areas that are formed as a result of the interaction and action of human and/or natural -cultural factors, by bringing together science and art in the processes of both designing and using the landscapes.Landscape architecture takes into account "age" as one of the factors which affects the psychology of users,while trying to meet the technical, social, cultural and natural requirements of the users, within the landscape design.With this study, user likes and preferences relate to important factors in the landscape design, (e.g. color, texture, form, lighting and accessibility), and are defined as depending on their developmental stages (age).2. MethodologyThe method of this study depends on literature review and questionnaire study. The material which comprises the data of this study was obtained from the findings of the questionnaires. The questionnaire survey in this study was conducted in the district of Qankaya, in the city of Ankara, Turkey, between October and November 2005, among seventy three people in total, using the face to face interview method.In comparing the age groups of the users with their preferences and likes, the khi kare test was used.P<0.20. values are accepted as meaningful. All statistical analyses are done by using the SPSS statistic packet.The reasons why the questionnaires were conducted in Qankaya is that it is the biggest district of Ankara and users from different economic backgrounds of society live there (bottom, middle, high). According to the year 2000 population census, the population of Qankaya county is 758.490 (Qankaya Municipality, 2002) and the age and sex distribution of Qankaya County population is; 0-9 years: 42.206 women, 44.379 men; 10-19 years: 62.802 women, 67.327 men; 20-24 years: 43.172 women, 58.578 men; 25-64 years: 200.753 women, 185.703 men; 65 years and over: 31.718 women, 21.551 men; unknown: 132 women, 169 men.Since the standard deviation among the age groups is 1%,conducting the questionnaire with 1/10000 of the population is adequate (Yamane 2001). By considering the possibility that children, who were 11 years old and younger, may give misleading answers to the questions, this age group was not included in the questionnaire. 301 people, whose age group was unknown, were also not counted in the questionnaire study. The number of people for whom the questionnaire should be applied is sixty seven, while the number of people to whom the questionnaire was applied is seventy three. The answers of the users to the questionnaire are evaluated by taking into account the age states of developmental psychology^ as defined below (Onur 2001);1. Childhood (0-2 years babyhood, 3~6 years early childhood, 7-11 years late childhood)2.Adolescence (12-18 years)3.Youth (19-25 years)4. Adulthood (26-34 years early adulthood, 3^-60 years middle adulthood, 61-65 years late adulthood)5.Senility (over 65 years)3.FindingsIn the user questionnaire, users were asked several questions in order to learn their preferences and likes about open green areas. These questions were intended to address the sense organs (color, texture, form, smell, sound) of the users, accessibility, lighting and the users’ developmental peculiarities. The findings obtained from these questions were;-Users from all age groups wanted to see more colorful flowers in open spaces. Pink, however, was the least favorite of the colors they wanted to see.-The users from all age groups generally preferred to see grassy fields and treecover in equal amounts inopen green areas. Users do not want open areas to be totally covered with trees.-Plants appealed to the users from all age groups with their colors, as compared to their other qualities,such as odor, size, form and texture. For the age groups of 26-34, 61-65 and65 plus, the texture of the plant was more appealing, and, for the age groups of 61 and above, it was the size of the plant that impressed the users.-The primary sense organ for enjoying the plants in all age groups was eyesight. Secondary were the senses of smell and touch. The most effective design element to enjoy the plants for all age groups was the color.-The age groups of 12-18, 19-25, 26-34 and 61~65 years liked both the evergreen and deciduous plants. On the other hand, the age groups of 35~60, 65 years and above liked evergreen plants the most.-Grass is the most preferred material for park walkways, compared to other materials, such as concrete, wood, brick, soil, asphalt, stone facing, pebbles, etc. The reasons why grass was preferred was because of its being natural (50%), being soft (43%), and being solid and smooth (7%). The least preferred material was brick (1.4%). Most of the users mainly preferred natural materials for walkways (wood, grass, soil, etc.).-All of the age groups preferred wooden benches, compared to other bench materials in the parks, such as concrete, iron, plastic, etc. The reasons why the users preferred wood was that it was warmer than concrete (48.8 %), is more comfortable (25.6 %) and it’s natural (22.0%). By the end of the questionnaire, it can be discerned that the users do not prefer iron benches.-Having too many stairs in parks affected the 19-25 years old group the least, since they were the strongest age group; however it had a negative effect on the 26 years and above age group who tended to go to parks, and prevents the 61 years and above age group, from going to parks.-The presence of a pool in the park was not an important factor for any of the age groups in their choice to go or not to go to parks.-Users of 12-18, 19-25 and 2^34 years of age groups wanted most to see waterfalls in the parks, compared to other water features such as still water, flowing water or fountain pools, etc.; while the 61-65 years of age group did not want to see waterfalls and the 61-65 and 65years and above age groups did not want to see still water. All of the users most preferred active water types, (flowing, fountain pool, waterfall, etc.) because users wanted to become aware of water not only visually, but also by its other qualities of coolness, sound, etc. which address the other sense organs.-Users’ tendencies to go to parks depend upon the seasons: 53.4% of them go to parks in all the seasons,while the 65 years and over age group did not want to go to parks in winter, due to the slippery ground.-Including lighting forms, such as all dark, all light and dim spaces, or light in some spaces and dim in some spaces, the 12-18 years of age group wanted the parks to be all light, compared to the other age groups. The users of 26 years and over age groups did not want dark spaces. Almost all age groups preferred parks to be light in some spaces and dim in some spaces. The most important factor which affects users,preferences about park lighting is the mood they are in when they go to parks (43.9 %).-Accessibility to parks mostly affects the 19-25 years of age group. 47.4% of this age group will go to parks which are closer to their homes. For the 61-65 years of age group, proximity of a park to their home is not important for using that park. These users go to the parks they like, since they have plenty of time and private cars, as they are mainly retired.-Accessibility is considered to be a factor for 19.1%, in walkway material preference. Users prefer nonslip, even, smooth, solid materials which better facilitate accessibility.-Walking is the most preferred activity for all age groups. Other activities decrease as the users grow older.4.ConclusionAccording to the findings obtained from the questionnaire study, conducted with the users of designed landscapes, it is perceived that likes and preferences related to park areas, show changes depending on the ages of the users. There is a relationship between the age groups of the users;-Flower color preferences in 20% of the sample.-Their favorite plant type in 5% of the sample.-Their preferences in going to parks with highly inclined, multiple-staged stairs in 20% of the sample.-The tendency in going to parks, depending on the seasons in 20% of the sample. These preferences show differences, depending on the age of the sample groups.On the other hand, there is a lack of a meaningful relationship between some important factors of landscape design and some preferences of user age groups. These are:-Open space preferences (having grassy fields and tree cover in equal amounts is a common preference for all age groups),-Material preferences in park walkways,-Preference in bench materials (a wooden bench is a common preference for all age groups),-The influence of the presence of a pool in going to parks,-Park lighting.Through this questionnaire study, it is detected that, in landscape design intended for all age groups, a balance of factors should be considered, instead of taking into consideration only one or a few of the age groups;-The users’ tendency to choose flowers in different colors from the parterre and their wish to see grassy fields and tree presence in equal amounts, in terms of texture, show that users psychologically seek for balance in their environment.-Choosing colorful flowers shows that users want neither active and tiring spaces which they feel psychologically appropriate for warm colors, nor calm and gloomy spaces which they feel psychologically appropriate for cold colors.-Another indicator related to the users’ search for balance, emerges in their choice of grassy fields and tree cover in open spaces. Users want open spaces to not be narrow, constrained and shadowy, or totally bright.-Users seek for balance in terms of form, as they want to have grassy fields and woodland in equal amounts, and they do not prefer areas which have totally horizontal or totally vertical forms.Detecting user preferences in landscape design is essential, in terms of extracting important results, to form and direct the design. All of these particularities of open space users should be considered in designs. ReferencesBostanci,S. H. (2002). Kentsel Tasanmda Aydinlatmanin Rolu.Sinan Chversitesi,Istanbul.Ciiceloglu, D. (2003). insan ve Davrani§i. Remzi Kitabevi Yayinlan, istanbul.Qankaya Belediyesi. (2002). Qankaya Kent Saghk Profili ve Saglikh Kent Gostergeleri. Qankaya Belediyesi Yayrnlan, Ankara.Onur, B. (2001). Geli§im Psikolojisi. imge Kitabevi Yayinlan, Ankara.Yamane, T. (2001). Temel Omekleme Yontemleri. Literatiir Kitabevi Yayinlan, istanbul. 景观设计以及公园用户的喜爱偏好 巴萨卡.欧泽,迈哈密特.艾明.巴利斯巴萨卡.欧泽: 土耳其,伊斯坦布尔-塔克西姆34437,伊斯坦布尔大学景观建筑学院迈哈密特.艾明.巴利斯: 土耳其,安卡拉-迪斯卡皮06110,安卡拉大学景观建筑学院摘要景观设计可以被描述为对某一区域的规划设计; 它包括了通过将科学和艺术结合在一起,人类和/或自然文化因素之间互动的结果,并且在这个过程中与人类心理学的设计和使用相互关联。本次研究的主要目的是根据用户的心理发展阶段(年龄)来确定城市景观设计研究中的用户偏好。因此,此次研究通过在安卡拉最大的区域坎卡亚进行的一项调查,以揭示每个年龄组对景观元素中软件和硬件特征的偏好。关键词:景观设计,公园用户的喜爱偏好,人类心理学,公园,年龄。引言在景观设计的过程中,用户的使用情况和他们的心理是两个主要考虑的因素,它被定义为通过将人类和/或自然文化因素的相互作用的结果并与行动结合起来的区域设计,在设计景观和使用景观的过程中将科学与艺术结合在一起。在景观设计中,将“年龄”作为影响用户心理的因素之一。在景观设计中同时努力去满足用户在技术、社会、文化和自然方面的要求。本研究中,用户的喜爱偏好 涉及到景观设计中的重要因素(例如,色彩、结构、形式、照明系统和可亲近性),并且这些都被定义为它们的发展阶段(年龄)。2.研究方法本次研究的方法主要是依靠于文献综述和问卷调查。本次研究数据的材料主要是从问卷调查结果中获得的。此项研究是在土耳其安卡拉市坎卡亚地区于二零零五年十月到十月之间进行的,采用的是对总共七十三人进行面对面访谈的形式进行问卷调查。在比较用户年龄组具有的偏好和喜欢时,使用khi kare测试.P <0.20的值被认为是有意义的。所有的统计分析均使用SPSS统计数据包完成。至于调查问卷是在坎卡亚进行的原因是因为它是安卡拉最大的区域,不同的社会经济背景的用户都居住在那里(可以分为底层,中层,高层)。根据2000年的人口普查,坎卡亚县的人口为758,490人(坎卡亚市,2002年),坎卡亚县人口的年龄和性别分布为; 0-9岁:42,206名女性,44,379名男性; 10-19岁:62,802名女性,67,327名男性; 20-24岁:女性437272人,男性58,578人; 25-64岁:女性200.753,男性185.703; 65岁及以上:31,718名女性,21,551名男性;未知:132名女性,169名男性。由于年龄组之间的标准差为1%,因此对1/10000的人口进行问卷调查是可行的(Yamane 2001)。考虑到11岁及以下儿童可能对问题给出误导性答案的可能性,该年龄组不包括在调查问卷中。因此,在调查问卷研究中不计入301名年龄组未知的人。调查问卷适用的人数应为67人,而调查问卷的人数实际为73人。调查问卷的答案通过考虑发展心理学中的年龄来进行评估,如下所定义(欧努尔 2001);1.童年(婴儿期0-2岁,儿童早期3~6岁,儿童晚期7-11岁)2.青春期(12-18岁)3.青年(19-25岁)4.成年期(成年早期26-34岁,成年中期34~60岁,成年后期61-65岁)5.衰老期(超过65岁)3.调查结果发现在用户问卷中,已经向用户提出了问题以便了解他们对于公共开放的绿色区域喜爱偏好。这些问题旨在了解用户的感观(颜色、结构、形式、气味、声音)、可亲近性、照明条件和用户的独特偏好。从这些问题中得到的结果是; - 来自各个年龄段的用户都希望在开放空间看到五颜六色的鲜花。然而,粉红色是他们最不喜欢看到的颜色。 - 来自所有年龄组的用户通常更喜欢在开阔的绿色区域看到等量的草地和树木覆盖。而用户不希望所在的开放空间完全被树木覆盖。 - 与其他要素(如气味、大小、形状和结构)相比,所有年龄组的用户都对有颜色的植物感兴趣。对于26-34岁、61-65岁和65岁以上的年龄组,植物的质地更具吸引力,而对于61岁及以上的年龄,植物尺寸的大小给用户留下了深刻的印象。 - 各年龄段的人对植物的主要感官是靠眼睛去看。其次的是嗅觉和触觉的感觉。各年龄段的人在欣赏植物时,最有效的设计元素是颜色。 - 12-18岁,19-25岁,26-34岁和61~65岁的年龄组喜欢常绿和落叶植物。另一方面,35~60岁,65岁以上的年龄组最喜欢常绿植物。-与其它材料相比,如混凝土、木材、砖块、泥土、沥青、石面、鹅卵石等,草地是公园中人行道最优选的材料。至于为什么草地是首选主要是因为它是天然的(50% )、具有柔软性(43%)、还很坚实光滑(7%)。最不优选的材料是砖块(1.4%)。大多数用户更喜欢在人行道设计时的优选材料是天然材料(木材、草地、土壤等)。 - 与其他公园材质的板凳相比,如混凝土、铁、塑料等,所有年龄组的用户优先选择木质的板凳。至于为什么用户首选木质的板凳,主要是因为它比混凝土更温暖(48.8%)更舒服(25.6%),更自然(22.0%)。在调查问卷结束时,可以看出用户不喜欢铁制的板凳。 - 在公园里太多的台阶对19-25岁年龄组的影响最小,因为他们是体力最强的年龄组;但是,它对26岁及以上年龄组的人有负面影响。 - 公园内的游泳池对于任何年龄组的人来说不是他们选择去或不去公园的理由。 - 与其他水文要素相比,如静水、流水或喷泉池等,12-18岁、19-25岁和26岁至34岁年龄段的用户希望看到公园内的瀑布;虽然61-65岁的年龄组不想看到瀑布,61-65岁和65岁以上的人不想看到静水。所有最受用户欢迎的水文类型包括如流动的水、喷泉池、瀑布等,因为用户不仅要在视觉上注意水,还会注意到其他凉爽、声音等其他方面的特性,而这会唤醒其他的感觉器官。 - 用户是否去公园会取决于在什么季节:53.4%的人在四季都去公园,而65岁及以上的年龄组由于地面湿滑而不想冬季去公园。 - 在照明形式方面,比如全部漆黑、全部照明和昏暗的空间,或一些空间亮一些空间暗淡,相较于其他年龄组,在12-18岁年龄组的人希望公园是全部照明。 26岁及以上的用户不想要全部漆黑的空间。几乎所有年龄组的人在他们去公园时都希望公园在某些空间亮,在某些空间暗(43.9%)。- 在公园的亲近性方面主要影响的是19-25岁的年龄组。这个年龄段的47.4%的人想去更靠近家的公园。对于61-65岁的年龄组,公园与家里的距离对于使用公园并不重要。这些用户前往他们喜欢的公园,因为他们有充足的时间和私家车,因为他们主要是退休人群。 - 在人行道材料偏好中,亲近性被认为是一个只占19.1%的因素。用户更喜欢防滑、均匀、光滑、坚固材料的人行道,因为这个更便于使用。 - 走路是所有年龄组最喜欢的活动。随着用户年龄的增长,他们的其他活动会减少。4.结论通过对设计的景观的使用者进行问卷调查,我们发现与公园相关
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