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中医药与保健食品课件

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中医药与保健食品 PPT 中医药和保健食品 中医药与保健食品 中医药与保健食品ppt 中医药与保健 中医药保健食品
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单击此处编辑母版标题样式 单击此处编辑母版副标题样式 *1 中医药与保健食品 n南京中药大学 n养生康复教研室 郭海英 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 中医基本观念 u整体观 u辨证观 u阴阳观 u治未病观 u重视脾胃 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 整体观 Ø人体是一个有机整体 Ø人与自然界密切相关 Ø人受社会生存环境影响 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 人体是一个有机整体 经络为纽带——把内脏与外周组织,脏与 腑联系起来 l肝开窍于目 l肾开窍于耳 l心开窍于舌 l肺开窍于鼻 l脾开窍于口 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 生物全息理论与中医理论的结合 l舌诊 l面诊 l手诊 l耳诊 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians n脏腑之间的联系 ü肝——胆 ü脾——胃 ü肺——大肠 ü心——小肠 ü肾——膀胱 ü心——肺 ü心——肾 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 人与自然相统一 必须顺应自然 l季节气候对人体的影响: ü夏季——天热则腠理开,汗出 ü冬季——天冷则腠理闭,小便多 ü春夏阳气升发,人宜适当增加户外活动,以养 阳气,起居应晚卧早起 ü秋冬阳气收敛,人宜适当减少户外活动,以免 伤阳,起居宜早卧晚起,“必待日光” do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians l季节气候对人体的影响: ü秋天气候干燥,肺脏易伤,养生应注意多补水 分,多吃含水分的水果、蔬菜,也用养阴润肺 的食物或药物,如银耳、百合、麦冬、生地、 玉竹等。 ü冬天气候寒冷,易伤阳气,易伤肾脏,养生应 温阳御寒,多吃温性产热高的食物或有温阳作 用的药物,如鸡肉、羊肉、鹿肉、狗肉,药物 常用山萸肉、菟丝子、巴戟天、鹿角胶等制成 膏滋。 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians l地域环境对人的影响: ü南方气候较热、多潮湿,故人的腠理较 疏松,多喝汤汁以补水 ü北方气候寒冷,多干燥,故人的腠理较 致密,多吃肉类以抗寒 ü四川盆地,低洼潮湿,喜食花椒麻辣以 燥湿。 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 人与社会环境的统一 n社会环境:包括社会政治、经济、文化、宗教 、法律、婚姻、人际关系等社会因素,都影响 着人体的各种生理、心理活动和病理变化,人 体必须进行自我调节,与之适应,才能维持着 生命活动的稳定、有序、平衡和协调。 ü良好的社会环境,有力的社会支持,融洽的人 际关系,可使人精神振奋,勇于进取,有利于 身心健康, ü不利的社会环境,则使人精神压抑,或紧张、 恐惧,从而影响身心健康。 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 辨证观念——强调个体差异 Ø辨:辨别、甄别 Ø证:证候、证据 Ø辨证:是将四诊所收集来的资料、症状和体征 ,在中医理论指导下,通过比较、分析和综合 ,辨清疾病的原因、性质、部位、发展阶段及 正邪之间的关系等,最后概括、判断为某种性 质的证或病。 Ø辨证的过程就是对疾病病情作出正确的全面分 析、推理、判断、诊断的过程。 Ø辨证论治:辨证是确定治疗的前提和依据。 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 阴阳观 Ø阴阳,是对自然界相关事物或现象对立 双方属性的概括。 Ø阴阳最初的含义:朴素的认识,即指阳 光的向背,向阳的为阳,背日的为阴 Ø阴阳的引申含义: ü凡是光明的、温暖的事物或现象—阳 ü凡是黑暗的、寒冷的事物或现象—阴 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians p自然界的阴阳属性: ü温热——寒凉 ü春夏——秋冬 ü昼——夜 ü天——地 ü日——月 ü火——水 ü上——下 ü外——内 ü动与静,明与暗,燥与湿,升与降 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians n人体的阴阳属性: ü背——腹 ü腑——脏 ü体表——体内 ü上部——下部 ü外侧——内侧 ü气——血 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 中医治未病的观念 n预防为主,是我国卫生工作四大方针之 一。 n中医的治未病:《黄帝内经》最早提出 ,强调“未雨绸缪”,防重于治,具有现实 意义。有两种含义: Ø未病先防 Ø既病防变 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 未病先防及其方法: n调养正气,提高机体的抗邪能力: Ø中医观点:正气存内,邪不可干 Ø调养正气的方法:起居规律、饮食合理 、运动适度、情志愉悦 n防止邪气的侵害 Ø防止环境、水源和食物的污染 Ø避免六淫、疫疠等病邪的侵袭 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 既病防变是“治未病”的另一层含义 n疾病已经发生,应早期诊断、早期治疗 ,以防治疾病的发展与传变 Ø早期诊治 Ø先安未受邪之地:见肝之病,当先实脾 (春季肝旺,适当进食甜味增强脾胃, 以防肝木乘克) do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 重视脾胃的观念 n脾胃为后天之本,气血化生之源,食物 的消化、吸收、代谢的主要脏腑。 n脾胃功能失常,食物无以消化、吸收、 代谢,口服药物也无法吸收代谢,其药 效无从谈起。 n冬令进补:膏方的使用有的要先用“开胃 药”,或在滋补药中加入健运脾胃的药物 。 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 保健食品常用的中药 n中药的性质: Ø四气:寒热温凉 Ø五味:酸、苦、甘、辛、咸 Ø归经:肝、心、脾、肺、肾 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 保健食品常用的中药 n解表类 清热类 n化湿类 理气类 n温阳类 消食类 n化痰止咳类 祛风湿类 n平肝熄风类 补益类 n安神类 收涩类 n理血类 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 解表类中药发散表邪,解除表证 Ø辛凉解表——发散风热药,用于风热表证 。(热性感冒)。如薄荷、葛根、桑叶 、淡豆豉、升麻、牛蒡子 Ø辛温解表——发散风寒药,用于风寒表证 (寒性感冒),如香薷、藿香、紫苏、 白芷 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 清热类 n清热药主治热性病证。 Ø清心火:栀子、淡竹叶 Ø清胃热:竹茹 Ø清肝热-决明子、菊花 Ø清肺热:鱼腥草 Ø清大肠热:槐米、马齿苋 Ø清小肠、膀胱热:车前子 Ø清热解毒:金银花、野菊花、积雪草、蒲公英 Ø清虚热:知母、地骨皮 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 化湿类 n以祛除湿邪为主要作用,治疗水湿 停聚的药物。 Ø化湿燥湿——白豆蔻、砂仁、白术、荷叶 Ø利水渗湿——泽泻、茯苓 Ø清热利湿——赤小豆、土茯苓 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 理气类 n具有疏通气机、行气解郁作用,治 疗气机郁滞证 Ø脾胃气滞——丁香、茴香、刀豆、陈皮、 厚朴花 Ø肝气郁结——佛手、香橼、青皮、香附、 玫瑰花、玳玳花 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 理血类 n此类药入血分,具有活血化瘀,或 凉血止血功效,治疗血瘀或血热出 血。 Ø活血化瘀——三七、丹参、红花、益 母草、桃仁、川芎、赤芍、蒲黄 Ø凉血止血——生地、丹皮、茜草、大 蓟、小蓟、鲜白茅根、侧柏叶 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 温阳类 n具有温中散寒作用,治疗寒证。 Ø寒邪犯胃——高良姜、干姜、花椒、胡椒 Ø寒邪入肝——吴茱萸 Ø心阳痹阻——薤白 Ø心肾阳虚内寒——肉桂 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 消食类 n此类药具有消食导滞的功效,以消 除胃肠积滞,促进消化为目的,治 疗饮食积滞。 Ø消肉积:山楂解酯酶,降血脂 Ø消米面积:谷芽、麦芽 Ø消痰食积:莱菔子 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 化痰止咳平喘类 Ø祛痰药:祛除痰涎,用于咯痰不畅 罗汉果、贝母、远志 Ø止咳平喘药:制止或减轻咳嗽喘息 白果、柯子、苏子 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 祛风湿类 n祛风湿药——祛风除湿——治疗风湿痹症 (肌肉关节疼痛) Ø桑枝、姜黄、川牛膝、乌梢蛇、蝮蛇 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 平肝熄风类 n能平肝阳、息肝风、止抽搐,治疗肝阳 上亢或肝风内动引起的眩晕、痉挛抽搐 Ø天麻、罗布麻、珍珠、石决明 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 补益类 n补益气血阴阳,治疗虚证,也称补虚药 ,或补养药。 Ø补气药——气虚证,人参、太子参、红景天、 黄芪、枣 Ø补血药——血虚证,阿胶、枸杞子、桑葚、当 归、熟地 Ø补阴药——阴虚证,玉竹、女贞子、玄参、石 斛、麦冬、百合、墨旱莲、鳖甲 Ø补阳药——阳虚证,鹿茸、冬虫夏草、杜仲、 山茱萸 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 安神类 n安定神志,治疗神志不安 Ø重镇安神:龙骨、牡蛎 Ø养心安神:柏子仁、益智仁、酸枣仁 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 收涩类 n有收敛固涩作用,治疗多汗、久泻 、遗精、崩漏带下 n止汗——麻黄根、五味子 n止泻——肉豆蔻、乌梅 n涩精止尿——山茱萸、桑螵蛸、金樱子、 海螵蛸 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 有特定保健功能的中药 n调节免疫功能 降血脂 n降血糖 改善睡眠 n改善记忆 通便 n减肥 祛黄褐斑 n促进乳汁分泌 延年益寿 n保肝 排铅解毒 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 1.调节免疫功能 n扶正药、补益药 Ø健脾药:参苓白术散、归脾丸 Ø补肺药:玉屏风散 Ø补肾药:六味地黄丸、二至丸、杞菊地 黄丸 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 2.降血脂 n血脂的形成——痰浊、血瘀、湿邪、积滞 n降血脂——化痰除湿、活血化瘀、消导积滞 n常用降血脂药有三类: Ø健脾化湿、化浊降脂:泽泻、白术、茯苓、薏 苡仁、荷叶 Ø活血化瘀、化浊降脂:丹参、红花、三七 Ø消导积滞、通便降脂:熟大黄、决明子、芦荟 、枳实 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 3.降血糖 n黄芪多糖具有双向调节血糖作用。临床 常用黄芪配合滋阴药如生地、玄参、麦 冬等治疗糖尿病。 n黄精有明显的降血糖作用。 n地黄(包括生地、熟地)具有降低血糖作用 ,且可改善血脂异常。临床应用于糖尿 病时,多以生地配天冬、枸杞子等。 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 3.降血糖 n人参多糖有降血糖作用。人参还能增强 胰岛素对糖代谢的影响。对轻症糖尿病 ,人参可与生地合用,人参每日用量为3 ~9克。 n山药可显著降低实验小鼠的血糖,并可 明显对抗血糖升高。 n麦冬可降低血糖,并促使胰岛细胞恢复 ,肝糖原增加。 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 3.降血糖 n黄连煎剂有降低血糖作用。从黄连整药 中提炼的小檗碱显著改善葡萄糖耐量。 n鬼箭羽有降血糖及增加体重的作用,并 促使胰岛细胞增殖,胰β细胞增生。 n有降糖作用的还有葛根、枸杞子、山萸 肉、茯苓、玉竹、桑叶、桑白皮、桑椹 、菟丝子、玄参、丹参、知母、仙鹤草 、地骨皮、花粉、肉桂等。 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 4.改善睡眠 n心脾两虚——益气养血、补益心脾——归 脾丸 n痰热扰神——清热化痰安神——竹茹、枳 实 n肝阳上亢——平肝潜阳——天麻、珍珠母 、石决明、酸枣仁 n阴虚火旺——滋阴降火——丹皮、栀子、 决明子 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 5.延缓衰老 n衰老的原因: Ø五脏虚衰,尤其是脾虚、肾虚、脾肾两虚 Ø血瘀阻滞 n中医延衰的方法 Ø补脾:参、黄芪、灵芝 Ø补肾:熟地、首乌 Ø补益脾肾 Ø活血化瘀:红花、当归、三七 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 6.减肥 n参见:降脂 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 7.增加骨密度 n肾主骨,生髓,为先天之本;脾胃气血 化生之源,为后天之本,不断补益先天 Ø肾虚髓减——补肾生髓:六味三补、补骨 脂、杜仲、菟丝子、牛膝 Ø脾胃虚弱——健脾益胃:参、茯苓、白术 、黄芪 Ø血瘀阻滞——活血化瘀:丹参、三七、 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 8.通便 u便秘形成的原因:熱盛、气滞、气虚、血虚、 阴虚、阳虚 u常用药物: Ø熱盛便秘——清热通便:大黄、厚朴、枳实、玄参、生 地、麦冬 Ø气质便秘——理气导滞:厚朴、枳实、木香、苏子、莱 菔子 Ø气虚便秘——益气通便:黄芪、人参、白术、麻仁 Ø血虚便秘——养血润肠通便:熟地、首乌、麻仁 Ø阴虚便秘——滋阴润肠通便:生地、麦冬、玄参、沙参 Ø阳虚便秘——温润通便:补骨脂、当归、肉苁蓉、麻仁 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 9.祛斑 n黄褐斑是一种获得性色素增多性皮肤病,好发 于青中年女性,育龄期女性较多。 n原因:肝、脾、肾功能失调 n常见证型: Ø气滞血瘀—香附、青皮、木香、玫瑰花行气解 郁,丹参、川芎、当归活血祛瘀,祛斑养颜。 Ø肝肾亏虚——枸杞子、女贞子、墨旱莲、何首 乌、黄精、桑葚补肾填精、容养颜面。 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 10.改善记忆 n人参 人参大补元气,生津安神,为益气健脾 补肺的首选药。本品对脑单胺类物质有明显影 响,小剂量可使脑干的多巴胺、去甲肾上腺素 明显增加,皮质5—羟色胺、腺苷酸环化酶活 性及无机磷也增加,苯丙氨酸透过血脑屏障, 有利于促进学习和记忆功能;人参皂苷Rbl和 Rd有促进神经因子作用,有利于延缓老年人脑 细胞萎缩;人参的抗疲劳作用,可有延缓老年 精神老化(固执、唠叨、怀旧情绪多)作用。 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians n党参 党参补中益气,健肺养血,可增加 红细胞和血红蛋白,对神经系统有兴奋 作用。实验证明,党参可加强学习记忆 和巩固记忆过程。本品适合于老年人调 补,能增强免疫功能,可抗精神衰老。 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians n石菖蒲 本品健脾化湿,开窍宁神,可用于治 疗湿阻中焦及湿浊蒙蔽清窍之神昏、健忘等症 。 n药理研究表明,本品对中枢神经有镇静作用, 可减少自发活动,其挥发油有安定作用,水煎 剂有抗惊厥作用。本品常与茯苓、龙齿、远志 等配伍以宁心安神,如安神定志丸;与牛黄、 竹沥配伍以清热化痰、开窍醒脑等。 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians n远志:祛痰开窍,用于治疗心神不安、失 眠健忘,常与茯苓、朱砂、龙齿同用, 如远志丸;用于治疗痰阻心窍、神志恍 惚等,常与石菖,蒲、郁金等同用。药 理研究证明其有镇静、抗惊厥作用,其 益智强志作用常用于治疗老年人之健忘 、失眠。 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians n其他常用益智药物还有刺五加、五味子 、鹿茸、淫羊藿、珍珠、龙眼肉等,这 些药物的健脑安神、养心补肾、安神定 志等功能均可增强人的学习与记忆功能 ,为临床常用的益智药物。 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 11.促进乳汁分泌 n黄芪、当归、党参、通草、柴胡、穿山 甲、王不留行、路路通、枸杞、山药、 杜仲、阿胶等 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 12.保肝 n垂盆草:有清热解毒利尿作用,对急、慢性 肝炎病人均有良好的降酶效果,它的降酶作 用快、幅度大,但也有反跳。 n丹参:研究证明,丹参能抑制和减轻急慢性 肝损伤时肝细胞变性、坏死以及炎症反应, 加速纤维组织重吸收,具有抗肝纤维化、改 善肝脏血液循环、防止肝硬化的作用。 n三七:实验表明,三七长期小剂量给药,可 以改善肝脏微循环,有促进肝组织修复、再 生和抗肝纤维化的作用。 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians n黄芪:黄芪有抗氧化及稳定肝细胞膜作 用,能促进胆红素代谢,减少肝细胞坏 死,促进肝细胞再生。临床用黄芪治疗 黄疸型肝炎取得了较满意的效果。 n冬虫夏草:能减轻肝脏的炎性细胞浸润 和肝细胞变性坏死,同时能抑制Ⅰ、Ⅱ 型胶原在肝内的沉积,使已形成的胶原 重新吸收和溶解,有抗肝纤维化作用。 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians n五味子:对肝损害引起的SGPT升高均有降低作 用。也能使肝炎患者的高SGPT降低,还可减轻 中毒性肝损伤的物质代谢障碍,具有轻度升高 肝糖元、减轻肝细胞变性、减轻中毒致病因子 对肝细胞线粒体和溶酶体的破坏、促进肝细胞 内蛋白质合成的作用。 n甘草:甘草可减轻肝细胞变性和坏死,降低血 清转氨酶活力,提高肝细胞内的糖元和DNA含 量,促进肝细胞再生,对肝炎病毒有抑制作用 。 do we simplify complex fractions and complex rational Disorders Building a Community of Support Immunizations American Academy of Family Physicians 13.排铅解毒
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