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Harvard Style哈佛体-引用格式

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HarvardStyle哈佛体-引用格式
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Harvard Style Citation and References Adapted from www sml hw ac uk archive 2010 11 Cite Ref Harvard Style ppt Learning Outcomes At the end of this lesson students are able to Understand the appropriate citation and references using the Harvard referencing style Demonstrate their understanding of the use of the Harvard referencing style i e Books Journal Articles Electronic Resources etc Why Cite Ref It s good academic practice and enhances presentation It allows you to acknowledge the work of others AND allows your tutor to differentiate between your own work and the work of others AND to locate the sources you have used It allows you to demonstrate that You have gathered evidence to support your ideas arguments You have used credible good quality sources Have read widely AND have read at an appropriate academic level Citation and Reference In your assignments you must demonstrate that you have used relevant good quality sources to support your arguments by providing in text citations in the body of your work AND a reference list at the end of your work Citation According to Myers 1 the reason for The reference is presented as a footnote at the bottom of the page or at the end of your work 1 Myers D 2008 Construction economics A new approach 2nd ed London Taylor and Francis p 159 Numeric style An in text citation that provides the following information The name of the author s editor s of the source it s date of publication AND wherever possible the page numbers you have used material from AND A reference list that provides full details of the sources you have cited in your text Harvard style requires According to Clegg 1985 p 543 the inter war period was Barter 2003 p 258 has shown that As Evans Jamal and Foxall 2006 p 76 point out It has been suggested by Reed 2008 pp 30 31 Barter 2003 p 258 and Stuart 2001 p 85 note A number of authors including Smith 2008 pp 21 24 and Adams 2001 pp 165 166 have argued that p page number pp page numbers What s an in text citation 25 of manufacturing jobs were lost in the 1980 s Jones 1995 p 64 Several authors Ray 2002 p 23 Smith 2004 p 70 conclude A recent survey Gordon 2001 pp 21 28 has found Page numbers Always cite page numbers except if you merely wish to mention the existence of a book journal etc without using material from it For example A number of recent studies Gray 2002 Toms 2004 Lee 2008 have considered the Scottish economy in the 1990 s What s an in text citation What s a reference list It s a list of all the sources you have cited in the text of your assignment It s presented at the end of your work in alphabetical order by author editor Do not list books journals newspapers then websites etc Note a bibliography lists all of the sources you have read to help write your assignment not just those cited in the text When must I provide a citation Quote directly use another person s ideas in their words Paraphrase present another person s ideas in your words Summarise express another person s ideas in fewer words Use ideas theories facts experiments case studies from a source Adopt another person s research method survey or experiment design Use statistics tables diagrams etc not just words Quote directly If you present information exactly as it appears in a source indicate this by using quotation marks Market segmentation is where the larger market is heterogeneous and can be broken down into smaller units that are similar in character Easy and Sorensen 2009 p 133 Paraphrase Original MP s were not paid a salary until 1912 In medieval times constituents sometimes paid their members and met some of the expenses of sending an MP to Westminster but the practice died out by the end of the 17th century and thereafter MP s needed personal wealth or a personal patron in order to sustain a political career Rush 2005 p 114 Until the 20th century when MP s received a salary personal wealth or the support of a patron was essential for a long term career in politics Financial support for MP s had on occasion come from their constituents in the medieval period but this system had ended by the 17th century Cite Yes Sentence 2 has been re written but the meaning is the same as the original Summarise Original The proportion of manual workers in the ranks of the parliamentary Labour Party declined from 1945 to 1979 from approximately 1 in 4 to 1 in 10 Of the 412 Labour MP s elected in 2001 12 were drawn from manual backgrounds Criddle cited in Norton 2005 p 23 Since 1945 the proportion of manual workers in the parliamentary Labour Party has fallen from 25 approx to 12 in 2001 Cite Yes Sentence 1 has been shortened and rewritten but the key point is maintained No citation required Your own ideas theories arguments conclusions Surveys and experiments designed and carried out by you Your own research method Very basic common knowledge i e Glasgow is in the west of Scotland BUT Glasgow is in the west of Scotland and has a population of 530 000 cite source Citing books 1 author Citation In the 1980 s sales of blue jeans slowed and then declined Ransom 2002 p 100 or According to Ransom 2002 p 100 the sales of blue jeans Reference list Ransom D 2002 The no nonsense guide to fair trade Oxford New Internationalist or Ransom D 2002 The no nonsense guide to fair trade Oxford New Internationalist if no italics available use an underline Citing books 2 or 3 authors 2 Authors Citation As Sloman and Wirde 2009 p 65 point out Unemployment rates are traditionally higher among women Sloman and Wirde 2009 p 419 Reference list Sloman J and Wirde A 2009 Economics 7th ed Harlow Pearson Education 3 Authors Citation According to Torrington Hall and Taylor 2008 p 579 companies that discriminate Companies that discriminate against various groups lose talent Torrington Hall and Taylor 2008 p 579 Reference list Torrington D Hall L and Taylor S 2008 Human resource management 7th ed Harlow Prentice Hall in citations authors names must appear in same order as source edition ed note ed if not the first edition Citing books 4 authors Use the Latin abbreviation et al and the others in the citation Reference list Provide all authors surnames and initials Solomon M Bamossy G Askegaard S and Hogg M K 2006 Consumer behaviour A European perspective 3rd ed Harlow Financial Times Citation Solomon et al 2006 p 69 suggest that or People have been consumers for a long time but consumption has only recently become a focus for study Solomon et al 2006 p 23 Not X Solomon Bamossy Askegaard and Hogg 2006 p 23 Citing a chapter in an edited book Many academic books are comprised of chapters written by different authors the book will have an editor s Cite the chapter author s not the book editor s Reference list Include page numbers of entire chapter Tiesdell S 2010 Glasgow renaissance on the clyde in Punter J ed Urban design and the British urban renaissance Abingdon Routledge pp 262 279 Citation Tiesdell 2010 p 263 provides an overview of or A major development challenge has been the Clyde waterfront Tiesdell 2010 p 272 when citing chapters with 4 authors use et al Citing books editor Reference list Palmer A ed 1996 Who s who in world politics from 1860 to the present day London Routledge Newmark L ed 1999 Albanian English dictionary Oxford OUP Citation Palmer 1996 p 74 notes that Kohl won elections in 1983 1987 and 1990 Palmer 1996 p 200 According to an entry in Who s who in world politics from 1860 to the present day Palmer 1996 p 80 In the Albanian English dictionary Newmark 1999 p 90 ensure that you are not citing from a chapter that has it s own author s editor ed editors eds Citing books no date author No date Reference list Hendry S n d Flora and fauna of Scotland Glasgow Collins Citation Hendry n d p 21 describes No author Reference list Understanding SPSS 2009 London SPSS Press Harraps pocket Portuguese dictionary 1988 London Harrap Citation Understanding SPSS 2009 p 26 describes Harraps pocket Portuguese dictionary 1988 p 65 defines Citing books translations Reference list Provide information about the translator Vondung K 2000 The apocalypse in Germany Translated from German by S D Ricks Columbia University of Missouri Press Citation According to Vondung 2000 p 64 or In Vondung s The apocalypse in Germany 2000 pp 36 50 translated by S D Ricks Citing books e book E books can be accessed via the library catalogue bfLuBw 20100120132720 2B0000 Accessed 26 January 2010 Plait P 2010 Wise uncovers its first near Earth asteroid Bad Astronomy weblog 25 January Available from Accessed 26 January 2010 Miscellaneous Presentation Sims G 2009 The development of the Scottish economy in the 1990 s Lecture Heriot Watt University Edinburgh 9 December Standard British Standards Institution 1997 BS 7885 1997 Code of practice for safe entry into silos Milton Keynes BSI Map Ordnance Survey 2007 Firth of Clyde Landranger series Sheet 63 1 50 000 Southampton Ordnance Survey Encyclopaedia entry Baker C and Prys Jones S 1998 Thresholds theory Encylopedia of bilingualism and bilingual education Clevedon Multilingual Matters Encylopaedia entry with an author Bohren C F 2004 Atmospheric optics in Brown T G Creath K Kogelnik H Kriss M A Schmit J and Weber M J eds The optics encylopedia vol 1 pp 53 91 Weinheim Wiley cite the author not the eds Quoting directly 1 author According to Royle 2000 p 167 the British state was strong because it was militarily effective and relatively efficient at raising taxes OR The state in Britian was strong because it was militarily effective and relatively efficient at raising taxes Royle 2000 p 167 Also According to Royle 2000 p 167 the British state was strong because it was relatively efficient at raising taxes Reference list Royle E 2000 Revolutionary Britain Reflections on the Threat of Revolution in Britain 1789 1848 Manchester Manchester University Press words left out of the original text Quoting directly 3 4 authors Reference list Evans M Jamal A and Foxall G 2006 Consumer Behaviour Chichester John Wiley Sons Citation According to Evans Jamal and Foxall 2006 p 176 cohesiveness is also closely connected with the affective nature of the group Evans Jamal and Foxall 2006 p 176 4 authors Reference list Solomon M Bamossy G Askegaard S and Hogg M K 2006 Consumer behaviour a European perspective 3rd ed Harlow Financial Times Citation Solomon et al 2006 p 176 note that the use of celebrity endorsers is an expensive but commonly used strategy Solomon et al 2006 p 176 Quoting directly long quotes Leave space above below the quote indent from left According to Solomon et al 2006 p 177 The effectiveness of celebrities as communications sources often depends upon their perceived credibility Consumers may not trust a celebrity s motives for endorsing a product or they may question the star s competence to evaluate the product s claims Therefore Secondary referencing This occurs when the author of the source you are reading refers to the work of another author and you want to use the work of the other author For example Clarke s book refers to a book written by Taylor If you can t locate the original work i e by Taylor and you believe that Clarke s interpretation of Taylor s work is reliable To cite According to Taylor cited in Clarke 2008 p 17 Clarke 2008 p 17 citing Taylor notes that Taylor cited in Clarke 2008 p 17 Reference list Clarke would appear in your reference list not Taylor unless you have read Taylor Plagiarism If you do not cite ref ideas or quotes from other authors you may be accused of plagiarism Plagiarism is defined as presenting someone else s work as your own It s academic theft To avoid plagiarism you MUST always note accurately and fully the details of all the sources you use Take note Books Author s editor s name s Book title Publication date Edition if not the first Place of publication Publisher name Page numbers used Electronic resources Web address DOI Author title of source used Date of publication if available Page numbers used if available Date accessed Is it an e book e journal e mail discussion list blog etc Journal articles Name s of article author s Title of the article Title of the journal Date when journal was published The page number s of journal article Volume and issue numbers Page number s used Conferences Author s editor s corporate author of conference proceedings Title of conference proceedings Title of conference paper Author of conference paper Page numbers of conference paper Page number s used Summary When you use ideas from refer to or quote from another person s work you MUST acknowledge this in your work by citing and referencing Ensure that your citations and references are complete accurate and consistent by keeping note of the sources you have used and where you found them If you present work containing ideas or quotes from other authors without acknowledging their work even if you do so accidentally you may be accused of plagiarism
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