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高二英语上册unit2 grammar

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高二英语上册unit2grammar
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Learning Aims 1 To learn the ed form used as Attribute and Predicative Filling the blanks with proper words and phrases 1 Which of the news media above is the most 最可靠 2 那个人被解雇了 3 The man 面对困难 4 The temperature has 上升 5 These houses were 烧毁 by the enemy 6 A library is 不仅仅 just a place where books are stored 7 作出明智的决定 8 I think we may these two accident 把 与 联系起来 his carelessness reliable The man was fired faces difficulties gone up burned down more than make informed decisions relateto 10 转换角色 switch roles 9 就这 那 一次 for once 11 They were crying 而不是 singing 12 阐述故事情节 13 Mr John 颁奖 at the meeting 14 Mirrors 反射 light 15 读关于 的文章 获悉 16 Many students 沉溺于 computer games 17 苦于 患 病 18 对 加以注意 把注意力吸引到 上来 19 The problem is beyond my 理解力 20 在各方面 到处 ratherthan develop the story presented the prizes reflect read about are addicted to suffer from draw attract catch one s attention to understanding on all sides China is a developing country belonging to the Third World 一 作定语 单个的分词作定语一般放在被修饰词的前面 ing分词短语作定语应放在被修饰词的后面 也相 当于一个定语从句 唱歌的男孩 在酒吧里唱歌的男孩 a singing boy a boy singing in the bar 站在门边的同志是谁 1 Who is the comrade standing by the door Who is the comrade that is standing by the door 他们住在一所朝南的房子里 2 They lived in a house facing south They lived in a house which is facing south 2 作定语 例2 NMET1997第17题 The Olympic Games in 776 B C did not include women players until 1912 A first played B to be first played C first playing D to be first playing A 解析 过去 分词做定语与其修饰词之间是动宾关系且 过去分词表示的动作以完成 现在分词作定语表示动作正在发生 与修饰词是 主谓关系 不定式作定语表示将要发生的动作 所以A是正确的 First played in 776B C which was first played in 776 B C 二 作补语 ing分词可以在see hear notice watch feel look at listen to observe have get leave keep set catch find 等动词后面和一个名词或代词构成一个复合宾语 作宾语补语 如 I noticed a man running out of the bank when I got off the car 我下车的时候注意到一个男人匆匆忙忙地从银行里跑出 来 Last night the shopkeeper caught a child stealing some food in the shop 昨晚 店主在商店里抓到一个小孩在偷东西 感官动词和使役动词 能跟现在分词作宾语补足语的常见动词 have keep leave make 四 让 look at see watch 三看 hear listen to 两听 find catch 两发现 notice 一注意 feel 一感觉 上面这类句子也可变成被动语态 这时 ing分词可看成是主语补语 We were kept waiting for quite a long time 让我们等了好长时间 Jily was never heard singing that song again 人们再也没有听到吉丽唱这首歌了 作 状 语 现在分词作状语 表时间 原因 条件 结 果 伴随 方式 等 Hearing the cry for help he rushed out 时间 Being ill he went home 原因 European football is played in 80 countries making it the most popular sport in the world NMET 98 结果 He read a magazine waiting for the bus 伴随 Seeing from the hill you can get the whole town 条件 ing分词同样有时态和语态的变化 通常有下表 几种形式 以do为例 主动形式被动形式 一般式 完成式 doingbeing done having done having been done 2 ing分词的一般式和完成式 ing分词的一般式表示和谓语动词所表示的动作同时进行的动作 完成式表示在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生的动作 They talked about the life of university sitting on the ground Not having studied his lessons very hard he failed the examinations 因为没有努力学习功课 他考试不及格 同时 之前 ing分词的否定形式是由not 加 ing分词构成 Not knowing his address I could do nothing but stay at home and wait 不知道他的地址 我只好在家里等着 3 ing分词的被动式 ing分词的被动式表示它的逻辑主语是 ing分词动作的 承受者 根据 ing分词动作发生的时间 ing分词的被动式有 一般被动式 being done 完成被动式 having been done 如 The question being discussed is very important 正在被讨论的问题很重要 2 Having been criticized by the teacher he gave up smoking 被老师批评以后 他把烟戒了 Learning Aims 1 Review the words appearing in this unit 2 Learn and master the use of the Past Participle as Attribute and Predicative 3 Do some exercises for further understanding The Past Participle 过去分词 Form 规则动词的过去分词 v ed 不规则动词的过去分词没有统一的构成规则 Function 1 作定语 Attribute 2 作表语 Predicative 一般来说 过去分词含有 完成 或 被动 的双重意义 B 被动意义 An honored guest 一位受尊敬的客人 A 完成意义 A retired teacher 一位退休的教师 Meaning 1 单个过去分词作定语 一般放在名词的前面 注意点 过去分词修饰something nothing somebody等 不定代词或指示代词those时 要放在这些词的后面 fallen leaves a risen sun已升起的太阳 boiled water a broken glass被打破的玻璃杯 1 He is one of 1 He is one of thosethose invited invited 2 2 nothingnothing reported in the newspaper reported in the newspaper interested him interested him the the changingchanging world world the the changedchanged world world boilingboiling water water boiledboiled water water fadingfading flowers flowers faded faded flowersflowers a a developingdevelopingcountrycountry a a developeddeveloped country country 正在变化的 正在变化的 变化了的 变化了的 正在沸腾的 正在沸腾的 已经沸腾过的 已经沸腾过的 正在凋谢的正在凋谢的 已经凋谢的 已经凋谢的 发展中的发展中的 发达的 发达的 in the given timein the given time with the words given with the words given a wanted person a wanted person workers wanted workers wanted a concerned look a concerned look the people concerned the people concerned 在既定的时间内在既定的时间内 用所给的单词用所给的单词 被通缉的人被通缉的人 招聘工人招聘工人 关切的神情关切的神情 有关人士有关人士 有些过去分词作前置定语或后置定语时意义不同 2 如果是过去分词短语作定语 要放在名词的后面 其功能相当于一个定语从句 We lived in the house built by my father We lived in the house which was built by my father 过去分词或过去分词短语作定语时 其功能相当过去分词或过去分词短语作定语时 其功能相当 于一个定语从句 于一个定语从句 The stolen bike belongs to Jack The stolen bike belongs to Jack The bike The bike which had been stolenwhich had been stolen belongs to Jack belongs to Jack The lecture The lecture given by Professor Zhanggiven by Professor Zhang is about environment protection is about environment protection The lecture The lecture which was given by which was given by Professor ZhangProfessor Zhang is about the is about the environment protection environment protection 过去分词与现在分词的区别 1 语态不同 现在分词表示主动 及物动词的过去分词表示被动 注 不及物动词的过去分词只有 完成 含义 而不表示被动 an inspiring speech the inspired audience 鼓舞人心的演说 受到鼓舞的观众 The falling leaves the fallen leaves 落叶 正往下落的 落叶 已经落到地面的 2 时间关系不同 现在分词作定语 多表示 动作正在 进行 或 与谓语同时进行 或 经常性 过去分词作定语 则多表示分词动作 先于位于动词表 示的动作 或 没有一定的时间性 1 Do you know the boy lie under the big tree 2 The woman sell vegetables has gone 3 The wheat is watered by water bring from a pond 4 He is a leader respect by the people lying selling brought respected 3 及物动词的过去分词 done 与现在分词的被动式 being done 都可以表示 被动 但前者多表示一个 完成了的动作 而后者则表示一个正在进行的动作 the problem discussed yesterday The problem being discussed 4 过去分词 done 与现在分词的完成被动式 having been done 都表示 完成 和 被动 但前者 的时间性不变 而后者更加强调分词动作明显先于 谓语动作 1 He is a teacher respect by all 2 tell to stay in Beijing the boy decided not to returned to his village respected Having been told 1 The telegram that was sent by my sister brought the news of my dear grandma s death 1 2 Let s try the bookstore that was opened last month 2 3 Nine out of ten women who were interviewed 3 about the product said they liked it The telegram sent by my sister brought the news of my dear grandma s death Let s try the bookstore opened last month Nine out of ten women interviewed about the product said they like it 4 The three guns which had been stolen from the police station were found in the house 5 I don t like going to supermarkets that located in the center of the town The three guns stolen from the police station were found in the house I don t like going to supermarkets located in the center of the town 过去分词作表语 无 被动 的意思 只是 表示主语的状态或思想感情等 结构为 be feel look seem get become done 常见作表语的过去分词有 amazed disappointed excited interested moved pleased satisfied surprised等 For example She looked worried I am interested in the book He was lost in thought The door remained locked 1 He looked worried after reading the letter when we heard of it we were deeply moved 2 The glass is broken The glass is broken by Tom last night 表示状态 表示动作 注 过去分词作表语不要与被动语态混为一谈 1 用作表语的过去分词 主要表示一种状态 此时相当于一个形容词 2 用作被动语态的过去分词 句子的主语是 动作的承受者 后常跟by短语 有的已成为固定搭配 be covered with be lost in thought be caught in the rain be separated from be interested in 被 覆盖 陷入沉思 被雨淋 从 分离 对 感兴趣 2 过去分词作表语与现在分词作表语的区别 1 V ing 一般表主动或主语的性质和特性 令人 主语多为物 2 PP 主语的感受或状态 感到 主语多为人 EG How disappointed he felt at the result of the election 他感到失望 1 How disappointing he is He should not have failed in such an election 他令人失望 interesting interested exciting excited delighting delighted disappointing disappointed encouraging encouraged pleasing pleased satisfying satisfied puzzling puzzled surprising surprised worrying worried 使人感兴趣的 感兴趣的 令人激动的 感到激动的 令人高兴的 感到高兴的 令人失望的 感到失望的 令人鼓舞的 感到鼓舞的 令人愉快的 感到愉快的 令人满意的 感到满意的 令人费解的 感到费解的 令人惊异的 感到惊异的 令人担心的 感到担心的 在用分词短语作状语时在用分词短语作状语时 它逻辑上的主语一般必须与句子的主语一它逻辑上的主语一般必须与句子的主语一 致致 但有时它也可以有自己独立的逻辑上的主语但有时它也可以有自己独立的逻辑上的主语 这种结构称为这种结构称为 独独 立立 结结 构构 独立结构可以表示伴随动作或情况 表示时间 原因 条件等 例如 He rushed into the room his face covered with sweat 伴随情况 The shower being over we continued to march 时间 So many students being absent we decided to put the meeting off 原因 Weather permitting we ll have an outing tomorrow 条件 All things considered her paper is of greater value than yours The job done we went home The composition written he handed it to the teacher 1 Prices of daily goods through a computer can be lower than store prices NMET 2002 A are bought B bought C been bought D buying 2 The first text books for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century NMET 94 A Having written B to be written C being written D written 过去分词的否定形式 not done 3 思考 in the country he found everything in the countryside interesting A Not bringing up B Not brought up C Being not brought up D Having not brought up 2 作定语 例2 NMET1997第17题 The Olympic Games in 776 B C did not include women players until 1912 A first played B to be first played C first playing D to be first playing A reporter begins by contacting the people to be interviewed and then prepares questions Most of the artists invited to the party were from South Africa Did you see the boy being questioned by the police 过去分词作定语表示一个完成的被动作 现在分词被动式作定语表示一个正在进行的被动动作 不定式的被动式作定语表示一个将来的被动动作 Grammar exercisesexercises in the bookin the book P 13 Ex 1 Past Participle used as Attribute experienced informed talented organized stolen addicted printed Past Participle used as Predicative needed respected tolerated P 14 Ex 2 informed decisions decisions that are based on information talented journalists journalists who are talented an organized way a way which is organized stolen cultural relics cultural relics that were stolen P 14 Ex 3 The telegram sent by my sister brought the news of my dear grandma s death Let s try the bookstore opened last month Nine out of ten women interviewed about the product said they liked it The three guns stolen from the police stations were found in the house I don t like going to supermarkets located in the centre of the town Excises 4 on P 14 1 The three injured students were sent to hospital 2 Some used textbooks were given to the students in the countryside 3 Tom can t go to school because of his broken leg 1 4 The published novel is a best seller 2 5 The newly built research center is very beautiful P 91 Ex 2 The man who is disturbing the other workers is called James Smith James is disturbing the others The man who is being disturbed by the other workers is called James Smith The others are disturbing James 2 The teenagers who were discussing the event in the TV talk show were all school children The teenagers were on TV The teenagers who were being discussed on TV talk show were all school children People on TV are talking about the teenagers 3 The driver who informed us of the accident quit his job a week later The driver told us the accident The driver who was informed of the accident quit his job a week later Someone told the driver about the accident 4 I had already met the man who interviewed me before I came here The man is the person who asked me questions I had already met the man who was interviewed by the boss before I came here The man is the person who answered the boss s questions 5 Do you happen to know the host who is presenting the professor The host is the person who tells people about the professor Do you happen to know the host who is being presented by the professor The professor tells people about the host P 91 Ex 3 A well armed team searched the cave for the dangerous creature This is a well written composition I could hardly find any mistakes in it He is a well informed person you can get almost all the latest news from him The newly elected president is making a public speech on TV We are using the newly revised English textbook We find it a lot more interesting 6 Look at this badly printed book there are so many printing mistakes in it 7 The badly injured guard was sent to the hospital immediately 8 This is a recently updated source it will give you an idea of what s going on 9 Look That newly built house is where my father works 10 Society needs well educated citizens so education is very important in one s life Compete the sentences using the right form of the given verb 1 I had nothing to do I was bore and lonely 2 Jack looked even more amaze than he felt 3 The results were very disappoint 4 I was thanked by the satisfy customer 5 The girl dress in red is my daughter 6 Last Monday our class went on an organise trip bored amazed disappointing satisfied dressed organised
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