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高二英语上册Unit7语法

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英语 上册 Unit7 语法
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语气 英语的动词一般可带有三种不同的语气 陈述语气 祈使语气和虚拟语气 不 同的语气用动词的不同形式 有的还借 助句法形式 来表示 语气 陈述语气 The Indicative Mood 用来陈述一个事实 或提出一个看法 有肯定 否定 疑问或感叹等形 式 People get AIDS after having been infected with HIV Her mother did not know that she had AIDS until after Xiaohua was born How should we act towards people who have AIDS What a brave girl 语气 祈使语气 The Imperative Mood 用来表示请 求 邀请 命令 警告或劝告等 Let me do it Please keep quiet in the reading room 虚拟语气 虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式 一是用 来表示说话人所说的话不是一个事实 而 是一种假设 猜测 怀疑等 在条件从句 中或让步状语从句中 一是表示说话人 的愿望 要求 命令 建议等 在宾语从 句 表语从句 同位语从句 虚拟语气的概念 虚拟语气 一 在条件从句中 叫虚拟条件句 表示与事实相 反的条件 分三种情况 以 do 为例 虚拟语气在 在条件从句中 表示与事实实情况相反条件从句的谓语谓语 形式主句的谓语谓语 形式 表示现现在情况 过过去式 did be常用 were Would could might should 用于第1人称 动动 词词原形 do 表示过过去情况 过过去完成式 had done Would could might should have done 表示将来情况 过过去式 did were should do were to do Would could might should do 虚拟语气 例句 If you had come a few minutes earlier you would have met him 要是你早来几分钟的话 你就能见到他了 与 过去事实相反 2 If it were were to be should be sunny tomorrow I would come to see you 明天要是天气好的话 我来看你 与将来事实 可能相反 3 If I were you I would go now 假如我是你的话 我现在就走 与现在事实相 反 事实上我不可能是你 虚拟语气在 在条件从句中 虚拟语气 二 省略 if 的条件从句 当从句中有 were had 或 should 时 可省略if 而把它们放在句首 If I were to meet him tomorrow I should ask him about it Were I to meet him tomorrow If he should fail in the experiment this time he would try again Should he fail in the experiment If you had come a few minutes earlier you would have met him 虚拟语气在 在条件从句中 Had you come a few 虚拟语气 三 错综时间的条件句 交叉虚拟 即从句与主句的动作发生的时间不同 此时 需 要按时间来确定虚拟形式 如 If they had studied hard they could do it easily now 如果他们以前努力学习的话 现在干的就会容 易些 If he had not taken my advice he wouldn t do it much better like this 如果他不听取我的建议 他就不会干得这样好 虚拟语气在复合句中的应用 虚拟语气 1 记住 这些动词后面接的宾语从句 表示愿望 wish 建议 suggest advice propose recommend 要求 demand request require insist 命令 order command 等 2 除wish外 其它动词用should do 构成 should 可以省略 3 wish接宾语从句有三种情况 1 现在 用过去式 2 过去 用过去完成式 had done 3 将来 用情态动词 would could do 虚拟语气在 在宾语从句中 虚拟语气 例句 1 I wish she would be on my side 我希望她能站在我一边 2 I wish I were 30 years younger 我但愿自己能年轻三十岁 3 I wish that you would get a good job 我希望你能找到一个好职业 4 He wished he hadn t done it 他想要是他没这样做该多好 5 He ordered that the students should wash the clothes every week by themselves 他要求学生每周都要自己洗衣服 虚拟语气在 在宾语从句中 虚拟语气 4 记住 insist suggest 各有两种意思 要用不同的语 气 Insist 表示 坚决要求 时 用虚拟形式 即 should do Insist 表示 坚称 坚持说 时 用陈述语气 表示事实 Suggest 表示 建议 时 用虚拟形式 Suggest 表示 表明 暗示 时 用陈述语气 例句 The teacher suggested that we should clean the blackboard after class 老师建议我们课后把黑板擦了 He insisted that all of us should be there on time by any means 他坚持要我们大家想尽办法按时去那儿 He insisted that he was right 虚拟语气在 在宾语从句中 虚拟语气 在would had rather 宁愿 引导的宾语 从句中 当从句表示现在或将来的时间时 谓语动词 要用一般过去时 表示过去时间时 谓语动 词要用过去完成时 I would rather he you came tomorrow than today 虚拟语气在 在宾语从句中 虚拟语气 主句的主语常是表示说话人愿望 wish desire 建议 suggestion advice 要求 requirement demand 命令 order command 等的名词 表语从句的谓语动 词用 should do Our suggestion is that you should be there on time 虚拟语气在 在表语从句中 虚拟语气 同位语从句的先行词常是表示说话人愿望 建议 要求 命令等的名词 The suggestion that students should learn something practical is worth considering Do you know the order that you should keep watch 虚拟语气在 在同位语从句中 虚拟语气 在句型 It is important necessary strange natural that 中 that 后面的从句中的谓语 动词用 should 动词原形 例句 It s necessary that we should have a walk now 我们有必要出去散散步 It s natural that she should do so 她这样做是很自然的 It s important that we should take good care of the patient 重要的是我们要照顾好病人 虚拟语气在 在主语从句中 虚拟语气 在as if though从句中 常用虚拟形式 即表示与 现在事实相反 用过去式 与过去事实相反用 过去完成式 had done 一 as if 连接表语从句 She looked as if she were made of ice 她看起来似乎是冰做的 He looked as if he hadn t slept for two days 二 as if 连接方式状语从 句 She looked after the boy as if he were her own son 她照顾这男孩就像自己的儿子一样 He speaks to us as if he had been there 他给我们讲的好象他去过那儿 虚拟语气在 在 as if 从句中 虚拟语气 1 if only 意为 若是 那该多好啊 真希望 只要 只要 就好 表示现在的情况 应用过去式 如果是过去的情况 应用过去完成时态 If only I had arrived in time If only she didn t drive so fast 2 It s high right time that that 从句要用虚拟语气 谓语用过去时或should do It s time that you left should leave here 虚拟语气中的几个特例 虚拟语气 3 一些介词短语 如 but for 要不是 without otherwise 否则 等表示含蓄的条 件 这时主句要用虚拟语气 Without your help we would not have made such rapid progress But for my brother s help I would not have finished it on time I had to do sth more important otherwise I might have helped 虚拟语气中的几个特例 虚拟语气 1 表示说话人的要求 建议 命令时 常 用 should do表示虚拟形式 主要用于名 词性从句中 2 其它情况常用两种形式 表示与现在事 实相反 用过去式 表示与过去事实相反 用过去完成式 简单的归纳 虚拟语气 Alan the party if he had gone to London A would have missed B had missed C would miss D missed 2 It was the drug not the disease that killed the boy He would be still alive today if he that drug A not take B shouldn t have taken C didn t take D hadn t taken Exercises 虚拟语气 3 If only I to my parents But I didn t A listened B had listened C should listen D would listen 4 Tom suggested that Ann the house A sell B sold C shall sell D would sell 5 I wish this bus to the university A go B went C has gone D had gone 虚拟语气 6 Simon looks as though he never a square meal 吃得饱 though his parents feed him very well A get B getting C got D should get 7 He is talking so much about America as if he there A had been B were C was D been 8 I you some money but I hadn t got any then A would lend B would have lent C could lend D may have lent 虚拟语气 9 Have you ever been to Beijing No but I wish I A have B will C do D had 10 I don t think it is the right time that you A will go B went C go D must go 11 When a pencil is partly in a glass of water it looks as if it A breaks B has broken C were broken D had been broken 虚拟语气 12 2003上海春季高考题 Look at the trouble I am in If only I your advice A followed B would follow C had followed D should follow 13 2002上海高考题 It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I in love at the age of seven with the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown A wouldn t have fallen B had not fallen C should fall D were to fall 14 She insisted that she ill of him behind him but he didn t believe it A hadn t spoken B shouldn t speak C wouldn t speak D not speak 虚拟语气 15 It is high time the child to the hospital A is sent B would be sent C be sent D were sent 16 If it so hard we d go to town A isn t raining B weren t raining C doesn t rain D has rain 17 It s strange that he without saying good bye to us A should have gone out B went C should go out D goes out 虚拟语气 18 Had you listened to the doctor you all right now A are B were C would be D would have been 19 I d rather you know the secret A didn t B hadn t C not D not to 20 Without your help we this task A don t finish B will not finish C didn t finish D would not have finished 虚拟语气 21 Isn t it about time that you to pick up the visitors from New York A went B would go C go D will go 22 I wish I you yesterday A saw B did see C had seen D were to see 23 His silence at the meeting suggested that he to your plan A didn t agree B hadn t agreed C wouldn t agree D not agree 虚拟语气 24 The father insisted his daughter a rich man A would be engaged to B be engaged to C should engaged to D must be engaged to 25 You earlier The bus left a moment ago A would come B should have come C must come D could have come 26 She made a suggestion that the plan carefully A be considered B was considered C should consider D would be considered See you tomorrow
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