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高二英语下学期unit 13 (3)

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高二英语下学期unit133
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Unit 13 Language Study Modal Verbs Yan Dang Mountain 语法特征语法特征 1 情态动词没有人称和数的变化 即 情态动词第三人称单数不加 s have to have got to be able to 除外 2 情态动词不能表示正在发生或已 经发生的事情 只表示期待或估计某 事的发生 3 情态动词本身具有一定词义 但不 能单独做谓语 后一般接动词原形 一起构成谓语部分 ought to have to have got to be able to 除外 4 情态动词无非谓语形式 即无不定 式 分词等形式 Sum up 1 can和be able to 1 can could 表示能力 可能 只 用于现在式和过去式 2 be able to可以用于各种时态 只用be able to的情况 a 位于助动词后 b 情态动词后 c 表示过去某时刻动作时 d 用于句首表示条件 e 表示成功地做了某事时 只能用 was were able to 不能用could 注意 could不表示时态 只表示 1 提出委婉的请求 回答中不可用could Could I have the television on Yes you can No you can t 2 在否定 疑问句中表示推测或怀疑 He couldn t be a bad man 2 may和might 1 表示允许或请求 表示没有把握的 推测 may 放在句首 表示祝愿 e g May God bless you He might be at home 注 might 表示推测时 不表示时态 只是可能性比may 小 2 成语 may might as well 后面接 不带to 的不定式 意为 不妨 e g If that is the case we may as well try 3 have to和must 1 两词都是 必须 的意思 have to 表 示客观的需要 must 表示说话人主 观上的看法 即主观上的必要 e g My brother was very ill so I had to call the doctor in the middle of the night He said that they must work hard 2 have to有人称 数 时态的变化 而 must只有一种形式 但must可用于 间接引语中表示过去的必要或义务 e g He had to look after his sister yesterday 3 在否定结构中 don t have to 表 示 不必 mustn t表示 禁止 e g You don t have to tell him about it You mustn t tell him about it 4 must表示推测 1 must用在肯定句中表示较有把握 的推测 意为 一定 2 must表对现在的状态或现在正发 生的事情的推测时 后面通常接系 动词be的原形或行为动词的进行时 e g You have worked hard all day You must be tired 对现在情况的 推测判断 He must be working in his office 他一定在办公室工作呢 比较 He must be staying there 他现在肯定呆在那里 He must stay there 他必须呆在 那 3 must 表示对已发生的事情的推测 时 要接完成时 e g I didn t hear the phone I must have been asleep 4 must表示对过去某时正发生的事 情的推测 后面要接不定式的完成 进行时 e g Why didn t you answer my phone call Well I must have been sleeping so I didn t hear it 5 否定推测用can t e g If Tom didn t leave here until five o clock he can t be home yet 5 表示推测的用法 can could may might must 皆 可表 示推测 其用法如下 1 情态动词 动词原形 表示对现在 或将来的情况的推测 此时动词通常 为系动词 e g I don t know where she is she may be in Wuhan 2 情态动词 动词现在进行时 表示 对现在或将来正在进行的情况进行 推测 e g At this moment our teacher must be correcting our exam papers 3 情态动词 动词完成时 表示对过去 情况的推测 e g We would have finished this work by the end of next December The road is wet It must have rained last night 4 情态动词 动词的现在完成进行时 表示对过去正在发生事情的推测 e g Your mother must have been looking for you 5 推测的否定形式 疑问形式用can t couldn t表示 e g Mike can t have found his car for he came to work by bus this morning 注 could might表示推测时不表示 时 态 其推测的程度不如can may 6 情态动词 have 过去分词 1 may might have done sth can could have done sth 表示 过去 推测过去时间里可能发生的事 情 e g Philip may might have been hurt seriously in the car accident Philip can could have been hurt seriously in the car accident 2 must have done sth 表示对过 去时间里可能发生的事情的推测 语 气较强 具有 肯定 的意思 e g Linda has gone to work but her bicycle is still here She must have gone by bus 3 ought to have done sth should have done sth 本应该做某事 而事实上 并没有做 否定句表示 不该做某事而了 e g You ought to should have been more careful in this experiment He ought not to have thrown the old clothes away 事实上已扔了 注 ought to 在语气上比should 要强 4 needn t have done sth 本没必要做 某事 e g I dressed very warmly for the trip but I needn t have done so The weather was hot 5 would like to have done sth 本打 算做某事 e g I would like to have read the article but I was very busy then 7 should和ought to should 和ought to 都为 应该 的 意思 可用于各种人称 e g Ought he to go Yes I think he ought to 表示要求 命令时 语气由 should 应 该 had better最好 must 必 须 渐强 8 had better表示 最好 had better 相当于一个助动词 它 只有一种形式 它后面要跟动词原 形 had better not do sth e g It is pretty cold You d better put on my coat She d better not play with the dog had better have done sth 表示 与事 实相反的结果 意为 本来最好 e g You had better have come earlier 9 would rather表示 宁愿 would rather not do would rather than 宁愿 而不 愿 would sooner had rather had sooner表示 宁愿 宁可 的意思 e g If I have a choice I had sooner not continue my studies at this school 10 will和would 1 would like to do want to 想要 e g Would you like to go with me 2 Will you Would you like 表示肯定含义的请求劝说时 疑问句 中一般用some 而不是any e g Would you like some cake 3 否定结构中用will 一般不用 would won t you是一种委婉语 气 e g Won t you sit down 11 need和dare 这两词既可做实义动词用 又可做 情态动词用 作为情态动词 两者都 只能用于疑问句 否定句和条件句 need 作实义动词时后面的不定式 必须带to 而dare作实义动词用时 后面的to时常可以被省略 1 实义动词 need n to do sth 2 情态动词 need 只用原形need后 加do 否定形式为need not e g Need you go yet Yes I must No I needn t 3 need want require worth 形容 词 后面接doing也可以表示被动 need doing need to be done Thank you for your attention
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