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高二英语下学期unit 16 grammer

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高二英语下学期unit16grammer
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Non finite Verb 2 主要结构形式和 特殊结构的用法 一 不定式 否定式 not to v 不定式的时态 语态变化 主动态动态被动态动态 一般式 to write to be written 进进行式to be writing 完成式to have writtento have been written 完成进进行式to have been written 1 I plan the meeting tomorrow A to attend to hold B to be attened to be held C to attend to be held D to have attend to have been held 2 He is believed to A A be come B be coming C coming D comes B 3 I m sorry to you waiting such a long time C A keep B have kept D C be kept D have been kept 注意 1 不定式的进行时态常用在appear happen pretend seem等动词后 也表将来 He pretended to be sleeping when I came in 2 不定式的完成式常用在 appear consider believe hope pretend seem等表示看法与想法的动词后 此结构有 时也可用it作形式主语的结构代替 He seems to have bought the book It seems that he has bought the book 3 动词expect intend hope mean plan promise suppose think want wish等的过 去式加不定式的完成式 或他们的过去完成式 加不定式的一般式 都表示过去没有实现的愿 望 期待或计划 I hoped to have finished the work earlier I have intended to call you yesterday but someone came to see me just when I was about to leave for sb to do sth 在句中的作用 1 作主语 It s quite possible for you to catch up with them in a short time 表示人物特征的形容词同of后的名词或代词关系密 切 有意义上的主表关系 常与搭of配 表示事物 特征的形容词同for后的名词或代词没有意义上的 主表关系但与句中的不定式关系密切 有意义上 的主表关系 常与 for搭配 It was very kind of you to come to help me 2 作宾语 I think it better for you to see the doctor 3 作表语 What we want is for you to understand the matter clearly 4 作定于 He is an example for us to follow 5 作状语 I sent some pictures for him to see what Paris is like 二 动名词 动名词的时态 语态 变化表 主动态动态被动态动态 一般式writingbeing written 完成式having written having been written 1 He likes being helped 2 I m sorry for not having kept my promise 3 His coming will be of great help to us 4 The house showed no sign of having been damaged 有些动名词在句中是主动形式但有被动含义 如require want need doing be worth doing 一 动名词的复合结构 动名词复合结构的一般规则是 1 逻辑主语是有生命的名词时 必须用名词或代词的所 有格 作宾语 尤其是在口语中 也可以用名词普 通格或人称代词宾格 Tom s His coming is what we have expected She didn t mind Jack Jack s his him coming late 2 逻辑主语是无生命名词时 只用名词普通格 Is there any hope of our team winning the match 3 逻辑主语是指示代词或不定代词时 只用普通格 She was disturbed by somebody shouting outside 4 逻辑主语是以s结尾的名词 或是由一个以上的名 词构成的词组时 用普通格 I never heard of a person of character doing such a thing It was quite unexpected the students finishing the exam so soon 二 动名词和不定式在意义上的区别 1 动名词表示一般的习惯 抽象概念 或已 成为过去的动作 不定式表示的往往是具体的 或特定动作 也可以表示现在或将来的动作 Playing with fire is dangerous 泛指玩火 To play with fire will be dangerous 指具体 动作 1 2 两者在句中都可以作主语 但在下列句型中 常用 ing 形式 1 no use good 2 It is was not any use good doing sth 3 of little use good 4 useless 5 It is of little good staying up too late every day 独立主格结构 分词短语作状语时 其逻辑主语必须与句 子的主语一致 如果与句子的主语不一致 那么分词短语须有自己的逻辑主语 且 要用独立主格结构的形式表达 构成方法 名词或代词 分词 形容词 副词 介词短语 名词 独立主格没有 主语和谓语 所以不是句子 此结构常在 句中起方式 时间 条件等状语或状语从 句的作用 要用逗号与句子的主体部分隔 开 1 The guest having left she began to take a short rest 2 The exam to be held tomorrow I wouldn t go to the cinema tonight 3 He entered the room his nose red with snow 4 The children came running towards us flowers in their hand
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