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神经系统对内脏活动精品课件

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神经系统 内脏 活动 精品 课件
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As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 第33章 神经系统对内脏活动 本能行为 和情绪的控制 一 自主神经系统 一 交感神经和副交感神经的结构特征 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 二 交感神经和副交感神经的功能 1 双重支配 功能上往往相拮抗 绝大多数器官受交感神经和副交感神经双重支配 没有副交感神经支配的器官 皮肤和肌肉的血管 竖毛肌 汗腺 肾上腺髓质 肾 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 2 紧张性支配 有持续冲动传出 紧张性来源于中枢 因中枢不断接受外周信号传入 3 自主神经的作用与效应器的功能状态有关 刺激交感神经 抑制未孕子宫 兴奋怀孕子宫 4 对整体生理功能调节的意义 交感神经 应急 应激时兴奋 波及范围大 可 有不同的整合形式 副交感神经 修身养息 保护肌体 休整恢复 促进消化 积蓄能量 加强排泄 生殖 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester Upper Thoracic Sympathetic Nerves in the Cardiac Autonomic Nerves in Dog As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 二 内脏活动的中枢调节 一 脊髓对内脏活动的调节 脊髓是内脏反射活动的初级中枢 如脊休克恢复期 高位截瘫后 一些内脏反射活动可逐渐恢复 截瘫病人较易发生体位性低血压 脊髓本身完成的内脏反射往往不完美 如排尿不完全 不受意识控制等 胸腰段脊髓侧角发出交感神经 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 二 低位脑干对内脏活动的调节 延髓发出迷走神经 大部分胸腹腔内脏器官 延髓 生命中枢 呼吸中枢 心血管中枢 脑干网状结构存在与内脏活动有关的神经元 中脑 对光反射中枢 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 三 下丘脑对内脏活动的调节 下丘脑分区 前区 视前核 视上核 室旁核 下丘脑前核 内侧区 腹内侧核 背内侧核 结节核 灰白结节 弓状核 结节乳头核 外侧区 下丘脑外侧核 后区 下丘脑后核 乳头体核 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 三 下丘脑对内脏活动的调节 下丘脑是较高级内脏活动中枢 调节体温 营 养摄取 水平衡 内分泌 情绪反应 生物节律 等 下丘脑与边缘前脑 脑干网状结构有密切联系 共同调节内脏活动 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 1 体温调节 体温调节中枢位于下丘脑的实验证据 于间脑 丘脑和丘 脑下部 以上水平切除大脑皮层 体温可维持相对恒定 但 如在下丘脑以下部位横切脑干 动物则不能体温相对恒定 调定点 视前区 下丘脑前部 温度敏感神经元 36 8C 低于36 8C则发动产热活动 高于36 8C则发动散热活动 致热源可改变调定点的值 如细菌的某些毒素 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 2 水平衡调节 摄水中枢 下丘脑外侧区 与摄食中枢靠近 血液渗透压升高刺激该部位可引起渴觉 破 坏后导致拒食和拒饮水 视上核 室旁核 抗利尿激素 渗透压感受器 下丘脑前部 调节抗利尿激素分 泌 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 3 对腺垂体激素分泌的调节 下丘脑 垂体 效应腺轴 下丘脑调节肽 9种以上 经垂体门脉到达垂体 监察细胞 下丘脑的某些神经元能感受血液中某些激 素浓度的变化 从而反馈调节下丘脑调节肽的分泌 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 4 生物节律控制 另述 四 大脑皮层对内脏活动的调节 1 新皮层 刺激不同部位可引起不同的内脏 反应 2 边缘叶 包括大脑半球内侧面皮层与脑干 连接部 胼胝体旁的环周结构 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 边缘叶 古皮层 最内圈 包括海马 穹隆等 旧皮层 较内层 包括扣带回 海马回等 边缘系统 边缘叶 岛叶 颞极 眶回 梨状区 杏仁核 隔区 下丘脑 丘脑前核 边缘前脑 边缘系统除去中脑中央灰质 背盖等 主要功能 嗅觉 摄食行为 性行为 情绪 反应 学习记忆 内脏活动 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 三 本能行为和情绪反应的神经调节 q 本能行为 instinctual behavior 摄食行为 性 行为 q 情绪反应 emotional reaction 心理活动伴有的 生理反应 人类的本能行为受社会和后天影响较大 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 一 本能行为的调节 摄食中枢 feeding center 下丘脑外侧区 饱中枢 satiety center 下丘脑腹内侧核 与性行为有关的中枢 边缘系统 下丘脑 内侧视前区 兴奋 杏仁核 梨状区 抑制 其它 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 二 情绪反应的调节 1 恐惧 fear 和发怒 rage 2 恐惧的表现 出汗 瞳孔散大 蜷缩 左右探头寻 机逃跑 3 发怒的表现 攻击行为 竖毛 瞳孔散大 咬与抓 恐惧和发怒的情绪反应是一种本能的防御反应 defense reaction 或称格斗 逃避反应 fight flight reaction 假怒 sham rage 间脑水平以上切除大脑的猫受 到微弱刺激后表现的张牙舞爪的摸样 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 防御反应区 下丘脑近中线的腹内侧区 其它与防御反应有关的区域 中脑中央灰质背侧部 刺激引起防御反应 杏仁核 刺激不同部位有不同反应 性激素与防御反应 雄激素可强化攻击行为 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 2 行为的激发 自我刺激 self stimulation 脑的某些部位 如大 鼠脑内近中线 从前脑皮层通过下丘脑到中脑背盖的一 条束状脑组织 受到刺激后能感受到愉快舒服的感觉 在这些部位埋藏电极并设有方便的刺激开关 如踏板 可主动进行电刺激 但刺激另一些部位 如下丘脑后 外侧 中脑背侧 内嗅皮层等 可明显抑制自我刺激 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 奖赏系统 reward system 或趋向系统 approach system 指引起自我刺激的脑区 可导致愉快 舒服感 与腹 侧被盖区到腹隔核的多巴胺通路有关 惩罚系统 punishment system 或 回避系统 avoidance system 引起不舒服感及回避反应 与下丘 脑后部的外侧部分 中脑的背侧 内嗅皮层等有关 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 动机 motivation 与奖赏和惩罚系统有关 奖赏系统受刺激惩罚系统受抑制 激发某种行为 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 四 神经 内分泌和免疫功能的关系 一 神经系统与内分泌系统的关系 有些神经元是内分泌细胞 内分泌细胞受神经支配 激素对神经细胞的作用 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 二 神经系统与免疫系统的关系 神经递质可作用于免疫细胞 如NE抑制免疫反应 脑啡肽增强免疫 免疫系统可改变神经系统的活动 如IL 1可刺激下丘脑某些神经细胞释放CRH等 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 三 内分泌系统与免疫系统的关系 激素可增强或抑制免疫系统 如类固醇激素抑制免疫反应 免疫细胞有内分泌功能 分泌免疫因子和其它因子 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 第34章 脑电活动 睡眠与觉醒和脑的高级功能 一 皮层诱发电位 特征 1 主反应 先正后负 向下为正 向上为负 2 后发放 为一系列正向的电位波动 用途 1 皮层代表区定位 2 临床应用 体感诱发电位 听觉诱发电位 视觉诱发电位 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 皮层表面 顶树突 大锥体细胞 V As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 二 脑电图 一 脑电图的波形 波 8 13次 秒 20 100 V 清醒 安静 闭眼 波 14 30次 秒 5 20 V 新皮层处于紧张活动时出现 波 4 7次 秒 100 150 V 波重叠在 波上 困倦 波 0 5 3次 秒 20 200 V 睡眠 极度疲劳 麻醉 癫痫时的脑电图 高频 高幅 皮层占位性病变 高频 高幅 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 二 脑电波形成的机制 皮层表面的电位变化是由EPSP变化形成的 大量神经元的EPSP同步化 锥体细胞的顶树突的同步化EPSP可在皮层表面形成强大电场 皮层神经元的同步活动依赖丘脑 丘脑非特异性投射系统的 同步活动 促进了皮层电活动的同步化 低频 同步化慢波 高频 去同步化快波 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 三 觉醒与睡眠的维持 一 觉醒状态的产生机制 脑干网状结构上行激动系统维持觉醒 脑电觉醒 Ach 脑干网状结构 NE 蓝斑 行为觉醒 多巴胺 中脑黑质 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 二 睡眠的时相 1 慢波睡眠 slow wave sleep SWS 脑电波呈同步化慢波 感觉功能减退 骨骼肌反射活动及肌紧张减弱 自主神经功能改变 大多数内脏活动减弱 发汗增多 生长素分泌增多 有利于促进生长 促进体力恢复 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 2 快波睡眠 fast wave sleep SWS 异相睡眠 paradoxical sleep PS 快动眼睡眠 rapid eye movement sleep REM 脑电波呈去同步化快波 各种感觉功能进一步减退 唤醒阈增高 骨骼肌几乎完全松弛 阵发性眼球快速运动 部分肢体抽动 在人类还伴有血压升高 心率加快 呼吸加快 疾病夜间发作 生长素分泌比慢波睡眠减少 做梦 促进脑内蛋白质合成 突触联系 学习记忆 脑发育 剥夺异相睡眠可导致情绪激动等心理异常 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 睡眠时相的交替 入睡 慢波睡眠 80 120min 快波睡眠 20 30min 一夜转换4 5次 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 三 睡眠发生机制 主动过程 不是被动抑制 上行抑制系统 ascending inhibitory system 脑干尾端 引起睡眠和脑电波同步化 拮抗网状结构上行激动系统 慢波睡眠 5 HT 脑干 快波睡眠 5 HT NE As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester UFqb RCn8 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