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神经系统对内脏精品PPT精品PPT精品PPT精品课件

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神经系统 内脏 精品 PPT 课件
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单击此处编辑母版标题样式 单击此处编辑母版副标题样式 1 第五节 神经系统对内脏 活动调节 Visceral Activity Control By Nervous System As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 一 自主神经系统的功能 Function of autonomic nervous system 又称植物神经系统或内脏神经系统 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 自主神经系统 Autonomic nervous system 传入神经 Afferent 传出神经 Efferent 交感神经 Sympathetic nerve 副交感神经 Parasympa thetic nerve As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 一 交感神经和 副交感神经 的结构特征 节前纤维 Preganglionic fiber 节后纤维 Postganglionic fiber As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 交感神经 副交感神经 1 两者均分为节前纤维 B类 和节后纤维 C类 2 分布广泛 几乎所有 内脏器官 3 T1 L2 3灰质侧角 4 节前纤维短 节后纤维长 5 刺激节前纤维引起的反 应较弥散 节前数 节后数 1 11 17 分布局限 有的器官只受交感 神经支配 皮肤和骨骼肌血管 汗腺 竖毛肌 肾上腺髓质 肾脏只受交感神经支配 对脑神经核 S2 4侧角 节前纤维长 节后纤维短 刺激节前纤维引起的反应较局 限 节前数 节后数 1 2 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 二 交感和副交感神经功能活动特点 1 主要调节心肌 平滑肌 腺体 消 化腺 汗腺 部分内分泌腺 的 活 动 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 交感神经的主要功能 交感心跳快而强 皮肤内脏血管缩 气管舒张唾液粘 抑制胃肠与胆囊 止尿宫缩汗腺泌 扩瞳糖原分解强 注 止尿指促进肾小管的重吸收 逼 尿肌舒张 内括约肌收缩 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 2 A 大多数器官受交感和副交感神经 双重支配 两者的作用是拮抗的 如 在心脏 迷走神经起抑制作用 交感神经起兴奋作用 在小肠平滑肌 迷走神经增强其 运动 交感神经抑制其活动 这种安排 使神经系统从正反两方 面调节效应器官的活动 使之保持 适合机体需要的工作状态 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester B 有时交感神经和副交感神经的作用 是一致的 如 在唾液腺两者均促进唾液分泌 但交感神经引起唾液分泌的量 少而粘稠 副交感神经引起唾 液分泌的量多而稀薄 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 3 中枢有紧张性活动 例 切断心迷走神经心率加快 切 断心交感神经 心率减慢 切断支配虹膜的副交感神经 瞳孔 散大 切断交感神经 瞳孔缩小 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 中枢紧张性的原因 反射因素 如颈动脉窦和主动脉 弓压 力感受器的传入冲动对 维持 自主神经中枢紧张性起 重要 作用 体液因素 如中枢内CO2 浓度对维 持 交感缩血管中枢紧张性 起重 要作用 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 4 作用与效应器功能状态有关 如 刺激交感神经 可使有孕子宫 收缩 1受体 无孕子宫舒张 2 受体 刺激迷走神经 可使处于收 缩状态的胃幽门舒张 使处于舒张 状态的收缩 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 5 对机体整体生理功能调节中的作用 交感神经系统的活动比较广泛 常作 为一个整体起作用 尤其在应急 如 剧烈运动 紧张 失血或寒冷 状态 下表现更为突出 出现心跳加强加快 皮肤内脏血管收缩 循环血量增加 血压增高 支气管舒张 肾上腺髓质 激素分泌增多 糖原分解加速和血糖 升高等现象 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 作用 整个系统的活动在于调动机体的 潜能以适应环境的急变 维持内 环境的稳态 副交感神经系统的活动比较局限 在 安静时作用较强 整个系统的活动在 于保护机体 休整恢复 促进消化 蓄积能量 加强排泄和生殖功能等方 面 如 心脏活动的抑制 瞳孔缩小 消化功能增强以促进营养物质的吸收 和能量的补充等 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 二 内脏活动的中枢调节 Central regulation of visceral activity As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 一 脊髓对内脏活动的调节 Regulation of visceral activity by spinal cord 1 脊髓是内脏反射的初级中枢 2 这种反射调节的功能是初级的 不 能很好地适应生理功能的需要 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 二 低位脑干对内脏活动的调节 Regulation of visceral activity by lower brain stem As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 1 延髓 是生命中枢所在部位 如 呼吸 循环系统等的基本中枢 延髓受 损可迅速引起死亡 延髓发出的传出纤维支配头面部 的全部腺体 心脏 支气管 食 管 胰腺 胃 肝脏和小肠等 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 2 脑干网状结构 存在着许多与 内 脏功能有关的神经元 其下行 纤 维支配脊髓 调节脊髓的自主 神 经功能 3 中脑 中脑是瞳孔对光反射中 枢 所在部位 瞳孔对光反射消失 提 示病变侵犯到中脑 预后不良 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 三 下丘脑对内脏活动的调节 control of the visceral activity by the hypothalamus 下丘脑是调节内脏活动的较高 级中枢 可分为前 后 内 外四个区 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 1 体温调节 只有保留下丘脑及其以 下神经结构的完整动物才有恒定体 温的能力 下丘脑存在体温调节中 枢及其既能感受温度变化 又能对 传入温度信息进行整合的温度敏感 神经元 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 2 摄食行为调节 摄食中枢 饱中枢 所在部位 下丘脑外侧区 下丘脑腹内侧核 给予刺激 动物多食 动物拒食 破坏中枢 动物拒食 动物食欲增加而肥胖 饥饿状态 放电频率增多 放电频率较低 注葡萄糖 放电频率 放电频率 血糖水平 血糖 时 兴奋 血糖 兴奋 此外 饱中枢活动加强时 可抑制摄食中枢的活动 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 3 水平衡调节 下丘脑存在控制摄水的区域 位于 外侧区 摄食中枢尾侧 刺激该区 动物饮水 毁损该区 动物饮水 下丘脑存在渗透压感受器 可感受 血浆晶体渗透压的变化 反射性地 调节下丘脑视上核和室旁核 ADH的 分泌 调节肾脏对水的排出量 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 4 对腺垂体激素分泌的调节 下丘脑促垂体区的小肽能神经元能 合成和分泌下丘脑调节肽 经垂体 门脉系统到达腺垂体 调节腺垂体 激素的分泌 下丘脑调节肽 hypothalamic regulatory peptid 共九种 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 促肾上腺皮质激素释放激素 CRH 促甲状腺激素释放激素 TRH 促性腺激素释放激素 GnRH 生长素释放激素 GHRH 生长素释放抑制激素 生长抑素 GHIRH 催乳素释放因子 PRF 催乳素释放抑制因子 PIF 促黑素细胞激素释放因子 MRF 促黑素细胞激素释放抑制因子 MIF As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 下丘脑存在可感受血中激素浓度变 化的监察细胞 从而反馈调节下丘 脑调节肽的分泌 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 5 对情绪反应的调节 间脑以上去大脑猫出现 假怒 sham rage 现象 正常时 由于下丘脑的这 种活动受到大脑皮层的抑制而表现不 出来 提示下丘脑与情绪反应有关 下丘脑存在防御反应区 defense area 位于近中线两侧的腹内侧区 刺激该区出现交感神经活动亢进现 象和防御反应 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 电刺激下丘脑外侧区 动物有攻 击厮杀行为 电刺激下丘脑背侧区 动物有逃 避行为 下丘脑疾病患者常发生情绪异常 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 6 对生物节律 biorhythm 的控制 生物节律按频率高低分为 高频节律 低于一天 如心动周 期 呼吸周期等 中频节律 即日周期 如体温变 化 某些激素的分泌等 低频节律 长于一天 如月经周 期 下丘脑视交叉上核可能是生 物节律日周期的控制中心 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 四 大脑皮层对内脏活动的调节 Regulation of visceral activity by cerebral cortex As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 1 新皮层 刺激新皮层一定区域 除 能引起躯体运动外 也能引发一定 的内脏功能活动的变化 如刺激6区 除引起肢体运动外 可 引起肢体的血管舒缩反应 表明 新皮层参与内脏功能活动的调节 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 2 边缘系统 边缘系统由三部分构成 边缘叶 是大脑半球内侧面环绕在 脑干周围的弯曲环周结构 包括海马 穹隆 扣带回 海马回等 大脑皮层 岛叶 颞极 眶回 皮层下结构 隔区 杏仁核 下丘 脑 丘脑前核等 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 边缘系统的功能 参与摄食行为调节 如杏仁核易 化饱中枢 抑制摄食中枢 参与情绪反应调节 如刺激杏仁 核 不同部位 可出现恐惧 逃避 攻击等行为 As an intern who has just entered kindergarten the following plans have been drawn up for the new semester 参与性行为调节 有杏仁核 梨 状皮层 下丘脑视前区等参与 参与学习和记忆功能调节 如 海 马 切除颞叶而损伤了海马的 患 者丧失近期记忆功能 参与内脏活动的调节 是内脏 活 动的高级中枢 反应复杂 单击此处编辑母版标题样式 单击此处编辑母版副标题样式 36 000000000000000000000000000000000001111111111111111111111111111111111112222222222222222222222222222222222233333333333333333333333333333333333344444444444444444444444444444444444555555555555555555555555555555555556666666666666666666666666666666666667777777777777777777777777777777777788888888888888888888888888888888888899999999999999999999999999999999999aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaabbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbcccccccccc ccccccccccccccccccccccccccdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeefffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffgggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggghhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiijjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkklllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooppppppppppppppppppm 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