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第一章消化系统疾病课件

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第一章 消化 系统疾病 课件
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单击此处编辑母 版标题样式 单击此处编辑母版副标 题样式 1 第一章 消化器官疾病 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 概 论 1 组成与功能 单胃兽 复胃兽 口腔食管胰脏真胃 小肠 大肠 肛门 口腔 食管真胃前胃胰脏 小肠 大肠 肛门 四大功能 消化运动吸收排泄 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 2 病理生理 胃肠道消化 食物的能力 胃肠运动 胃肠分泌反刍动物的前胃 马和猪的盲肠及结肠中的微生物 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 瘤胃微生物 细菌 酵母和纤毛虫 能消化纤维 素 发酵碳水化合物生成挥发性脂肪酸 转化含氮物 质生成氨 氨基酸和自体蛋白 在某些条件下 微生 物活力会受到抑制 使消化机能障碍 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 机体是一个完整的统一体 消化系统其他系统 协调地进行着统一的机能活动 与 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 消化系统的任何 一个 器官发生机能障碍 引响到其他消化器官 引响其他系统和器官 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 临床上对于消化器官疾病的诊断和防治 必须坚持 整体观念 全面分析辩证施治 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 3 消化系统疾病的症状 消化功能减退 脱水 休克等 饮食欲减退或废绝采食与咀嚼异常吞咽困难 唾液分泌减少或过多 呕吐 反刍与嗳 气减少或停止 腹泻 便秘或少便 胃肠道出血 腹痛 腹胀 排粪失禁 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 第一节 口腔 唾液腺 咽和食管疾病 口 炎 Stomatitis 定义 口炎又名口疮 是口腔粘膜的炎症 腭炎 齿龈 舌炎 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 口炎类型 卡他性 水泡性 溃疡性 流涎 拒食或厌食为特征 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 机械损伤 理化刺激 病因 霉败饲料 口炎常继发于咽炎 舌伤 维生素A缺乏等 细菌感染 口炎也并发于一些传染病和寄生虫病的过程中 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 唾液分泌增加 流涎 口粘膜敏感性增高 症状 采食缓慢小心咀嚼 口腔粘膜充血 肿胀 口温高 卡他性口炎是其他类型口炎的初期临床病征 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 水泡性口炎 出现大小不等的水泡 唇内 齿龈 口角附近或舌面 内含透明或黄色液体 3 4天后破溃 5 6天后 上皮新生 愈合 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 溃疡性口炎 在粘膜及齿龈上有糜烂 坏死或溃疡 口流灰色恶臭唾液 若并发败血症或其他疾病 则预后不良 一般经10 15天痊愈 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 病史 诊断 口腔粘膜炎症变化原发性 鉴别诊断 口蹄疫中毒咽炎 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 治疗原则 消除病因 治疗 净化口腔 消炎 收敛 加强护理 0 1 高猛酸钾或雷佛奴尔溶液 2 硼酸溶液 1 2 明矾 鞣酸 来苏尔溶液 冲洗口腔 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 青黛散 青黛15g 薄荷5g 黄连 黄柏 桔梗 儿茶各10g 研细末噙于口内 中药治疗口炎 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 咽 炎 Pharyngitis 咽粘膜 粘膜下组织和淋巴组织的炎症 定义 咽炎类型 卡他性 格鲁布性 化脓性 以吞咽障碍和流涎为特征 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 理化刺激 病因 霉败饲料 诱发因素造成机体抵抗力降低引发感染 受寒感冒 继发性咽炎 由其他疾病继发引起 过度疲劳 原发性 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 发病机理 常在菌大量繁殖 咽粘膜损伤发炎 屏障机能减弱 咽粘膜刺激受损 抵抗力降低 病因作用 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 炎症可由表层波及粘膜下层和肌肉层 卡他性 呈现出 格鲁布性 蜂窝织性 炎症 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 卡他性咽炎时 咽粘膜充血 细菌感染 形成纤维蛋白性渗出物薄膜 炎性渗出 组织水肿 格鲁布性咽炎时 溃疡 咽脓肿 粘膜脱落 蜂窝织性咽炎 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 炎症过程中 咽粘膜敏感 吞咽困难流涎 分泌增加 病畜头颈伸直 咽喉部肿胀 呼吸因难 窒息 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 症状 采食缓慢 大量流涎 头颈伸直 精神沉郁 吞咽痛苦 体温 呼吸和脉搏变化不大卡他性咽炎 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 格鲁布性 体温升高 蜂窝织性 下颌淋巴结肿胀 脉搏加快 呼吸迫促 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 病史 诊断 临床症状 根据 病畜头颈伸直 吞咽障碍以及饮水和饲 料从鼻孔流出等症状作出诊断 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 蜂窝织性咽炎 则体温升高 局部肿胀严重 格鲁布性咽炎 则在咳嗽时 由鼻中流出纤维白 性渗出物及伪膜 与咽麻痹 咽外物阻塞和食道阻塞 进行鉴别 注意 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 治疗原则 治疗 抗菌消炎 利咽喉 加强护理 0 1 高猛酸钾或雷佛奴尔溶液 2 硼酸溶液 应用抗菌素或磺胺制剂 冲洗口腔 对症处理 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 食道阻塞 Oesophageal Obstruction 定义 按阻塞部位分为 不完全阻塞 完全阻塞 按阻塞程度分为 食道阻塞又称 草噎 是食道被食物 或异物阻塞所引起的一种急症 胸部食管阻塞 颈部食管阻塞 腹部食管阻塞 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 家畜在过度饥饿之后 贪食急咽 或在采食过 程中突然受到惊扰 匆忙吞咽 牛食道阻塞物 病因 萝卜 西瓜皮 甘薯马铃薯 块状饲料 马的食道阻塞物 粉状饲料 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 多是在采食中突然发生 停止采食 症状 牛 羊食道完全阻塞时 颈部食道阻塞时 外部触诊可感阻塞物 大量流涎 张口伸舌 恐惧不安 瘤胃臌气呼吸困难 影响嗳气 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 及时排除阻塞物 症状立即消除 病程及预后 马最多可支持一周 牛 羊会因瘤胃臌气窒憩而死 不能进食和饮水 长时间阻塞 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 病史 诊断 症状 必要时可做胃管探确诊 食道触诊 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 治疗原则 治疗 解除阻塞 疏通食道 加强护理 挤压掏取法 打气推送法 手术疗法 解除阻塞 防制并发症 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 第二节 反刍动物前胃疾病 前胃弛缓 Atony of Forestomach 定义 前胃弛缓是由各种病因导致前胃神经 兴奋性降低 肌肉收缩力减弱 瘤胃 内容物运转缓慢 菌群失调产生大量 发酵和腐败物质 引起消化障碍 食 欲 反刍减退 乃至全身机能紊乱的 一种疾病 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 变质 环境不适 单一 饲料 原发性前胃弛缓 又称单纯性消化不良 病因 饲喂不当 管理不当 劳役不当 质量低劣 应激反应 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 继发性前胃弛缓 通常为一种临床综合征 其他内脏器官的疾病 影响到消化系统统 寄生虫病 伴有前胃弛缓症状 传染病 营养代谢病 用药不当 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 发病机理 前胃机能紊乱是前胃弛缓的基础 由于上述致病因素的作用 引起中枢神 经系统和植物神经系统的机能障碍 导致前 胃机能紊乱 消化不良 前胃弛缓的形成 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 例如 当前受到胃内容物 粗纤维 劣质 过于 充满 长期刺激时 刺激的初期 前胃兴奋性增高 蠕动力增强 随着刺激的持续 前胃由兴奋转为 抑制 超限抑制 蠕动力减弱 形成弛缓 饲喂不当 营养不全或特别 使用抗菌药等 使瘤胃正常微生物区系遭受破坏 引起消化不良 异常分解产生的有害产物 对前胃机能造成不利影 响 一是直接刺激前胃壁 二是吸收后对神经中枢 损害 影响对前胃功能的调节 使瘤胃蠕动力减 弱 形成弛缓 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 中毒 受凉 其他器官或全身性的疾病均可影响 到前胃 使消化紊乱 继而引起弛缓 由于前胃弛缓 收缩力减弱 致使瘤胃内容物得 不到充分搅拌 瘤胃内的菌群分布不均 微生物的 活性不平衡 造成瘤胃内容物异常分解 异常分解 产生大量有害物质会进一步减弱瘤的蠕动 加剧瘤 胃内坏境的恶化 形成恶性循环 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 前胃弛缓形成后 对机体的影响 瘤胃积气 臌气 消化紊乱加剧 全身机能受损 消化道炎症和脱水 发展为其他性质的疾病 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 症状 食欲减退 反刍无力和次数减少 精神沉郁 粘膜发绀 鼻镜干燥 眼窝凹陷 触诊瘤胃 内容物象软面团样或粥状 瘤胃蠕动音减弱 蠕动次数减少 急性前胃弛缓 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 慢性前胃弛缓 急性相似 病程长 较顽固 常见有明显的全身 症状 呈现周期性的好转与恶化交替现象 有的是 急性前胃弛缓转变而来 有的是继发性因素所引起 如传染病 腹腔脏器粘连 长期炎症等 顽固性前胃弛缓特征 触诊瘤胃 出现 夹皮胀 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 病史 诊断 饲管错误 如反刍减少或停止 间歇性瘤胃臌 气 瘤胃音减弱等 可以作出诊断 症状 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 治疗原则 治疗 消除病因 加强护理 增强前胃机能 改善瘤胃内环境 对症处理 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 3 改善瘤胃内环境 适当补碱 补水 灌水 取 健康牛反刍食团给患牛投服 2 应用 促反刍液 500 1000毫升 每500毫升含氯 化钠25克 氯化钙5克 苯甲酸钠咖啡因1克 一 次性静脉注射 1 注意停食 急性前胃弛缓 停喂1 2天 慢性的 顽固性的前胃弛缓停喂时间可能更长 视前胃机 能恢情况而定 饲喂量逐渐达到正常量 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 瘤胃积食 Impaction of Rnmen 定义 瘤胃积食又称急性瘤胃扩张 是由于 采食大量难以消化 易膨胀的饲料在瘤 胃中停滞 不能后送所致 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 以中枢神经紊乱 兴奋性增 高或抑制 脱水和中毒 酸 中毒或碱中毒 为特征 从临床特征和病因可分为两种类型 粗纤维性饲料 引起的瘤胃积食 以瘤胃内容物积滞 容 积增大 胃壁受压及运 动神经麻痹为等征 豆谷类精饲料 引起的瘤胃积食 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 吃了大量不易消化的粗饲料 病因 过食豆谷精料 见于前胃弛缓 瓣胃阻塞 创 伤性肉胃腹膜炎等 继发性瘤胃积食 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 发病机理 瘤胃积食的形成 瘤胃积食形成后对机体的影响 蠕动减弱 瘤胃充满 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 当瘤胃充满过量粗饲料时 使瘤胃受到压迫和刺 激 粗老的饲料纤维 食物发酵产生的气体 起初 副交感神经兴奋 瘤胃蠕动加强 甚至产生痉挛性 收缩 病畜呈现腹痛不安 如果在瘤胃强有力地蠕 动下 最终将内容物后送 积滞消除 积食未能形成 如果瘤胃加强收缩后仍不能内容物后送 稍久副 交感神经由兴奋转入抑制 超限抑制 瘤胃蠕动减 弱乃至消失 瘤胃进一步容积增大 胃壁扩张和麻痹 形成积食 瘤胃积食的形成 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 瘤胃积食形成后 自体中毒 呼吸和循环受到扰乱瘤胃扩张 异常发酵和腐败 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 症状 食欲废绝 反刍停止 磨牙 腹痛 有的呻吟 瘤胃蠕动音极弱或消失 内容物充满 坚硬或呈硬面团样 纤维性饲料 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 精料引起 通常呈急性经过 除瘤胃扩张外 还表现出自 体中毒引起的神经症状 食入淀粉类饲料 12小 时就可出现症状 采食豆类则需24 48小时才出现 明显的症状 患畜表现出视力障碍 盲目前行或转 圈 严重时 病畜狂躁不安 头抵墙壁或冲击人畜 后期出现严重脱水和酸中毒 病畜全身战栗 眼 窝凹陷 痉挛 抽搐 循环虚脱而死 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 轻度瘤胃积食1 2天内即可康复 一般 病例 经及时治疗3 5天可以治愈 病程达7 天以上者 往往因瘤胃高度弛缓 给治疗带 来困难 预后应慎重 可能预后不良 病程和预后 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 病史 诊断 症状 采食饲料的 数量和性质 瘤胃充满 蠕动 音极弱或消失 食欲反刍废绝 与前胃弛缓 急性瘤胃臌气 皱胃阻 塞以及伴有瘤胃功能障碍的全身性疾病相 区别 注意 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 治疗原则 治疗 增强瘤胃蠕动机能 促进瘤胃内容物排出 调整与改善瘤胃内环境 对症处理 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 一般病例 首先绝食 按摩瘤胃 30 60min 灌服 酵母粉250g 或神曲400 g 或食母生200片 内服泻剂 牛可用硫酸镁或硫酸钠400 800 g 浓度不 超过5 使用促反刍液500 1000ml 静脉注射 洗胃 手术疗法 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 瘤胃臌气 Ruminal Tympany 定义 瘤胃臌气 是因前胃神经反应性降低 收缩力减弱 采食了容易发酵的饲料 在瘤胃内菌群作用下 异常发酵 产 生大量气体 停滞在瘤胃中 引起瘤胃 和网胃急剧膨胀 膈与胸腔脏器受到压 迫 呼吸与循环障碍 发生窒息现象的 一种疾病 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 按病性分为 继发性臌气 原发性臌气 按病因分为 分类 泡沫性臌气 非泡沫性臌气 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 病因 原发性瘤胃臌气主要是采食了大量的易发酵 的青饲料 尤其是易产生泡沫的牧草 如紫去 英 苜蓿等 在短时间内形成大量的气体 造 成瘤胃内气体生成和气体嗳出之间的不平衡 导致气体在瘤胃中积聚 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 发病机理 瘤胃臌气的形成 瘤胃臌气形成后对机体的影响 排气量产气量 大于 瘤胃气体积蓄 排气困难 窒息而死 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 瘤胃臌气的形成 大量易发酵的饲草在瘤胃细菌作用下迅速产生大 量气体 同时又存在瘤胃收缩力不足的情况 疲 劳 中暑 瘤胃中有害物的刺激等 瘤胃中气 体积聚 而发生臌气 形成臌气的实质就是瘤胃中产生的气体 不能通过嗳气排出所致 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 前胃弛缓和食道阻塞时 虽然产气速度无 异常 终因嗳气困难 形成瘤胃臌气或积气 泡沫性臌气 是因为瘤胃中有大量泡沫形 成 瘤胃液表面张力降低 易形成泡沫 瘤胃中的气体不能通过嗳气排出 造成瘤胃 臌气 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 瘤胃臌气形成后对机体的影响 窒息而死 腹压增大 膈肌运动受阻 呼吸困难 循环障碍 缺氧 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 症状 腹部迅速膨大 叩诊左腹部呈现鼓音 反刍和嗳气停止 左肷窝明显突起 急性瘤胃臌气 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 病畜呼吸困难 严重时张口呼吸头颈伸 展 张口伸舌 呼吸数每分钟可达60 80次 牛 羊正常值 10 25次 分 心动亢进 脉弱 脉数每分钟可达100 120次以上 正常值 牛 40 80次 分 羊60 80次 分 静脉怒张 可视粘膜发绀 步态蹒跚 站 立不稳 痉挛 抽搐 最终因窒息和心力衰 竭而死 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 多为继发性的 病情缓慢 瘤胃中等度 臌气 瘤胃积气 时消时长 常为间歇 性反复发作 食欲减退 反刍减少 瘤胃 蠕动咸弱 病畜逐渐消瘦 由于前胃机能 紊乱 影响肠道功能活动 可表现间歇性 的腹泻和便秘 慢性瘤胃臌气 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 原发性臌气经过迅速 如不及时急救 可于 发病后数小时内窒息死亡 病情轻的病例 如 能及时进行合理救治多数可以痊愈 继发性瘤 胃臌气 视原发病处理的情况而定 病程及预后 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 病史 诊断 症状 吃了大量的易 发酵饲草 腹部显著膨大 叩诊呈鼓音 继发性臌气 特征为周期性 原发性臌气 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 治疗原则 治疗 排出气体 理气消胀 恢复瘤胃正常功能 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 一般性臌气 非泡沫性臌气 用椿树棒 味苦 给病畜衔在口内 同时按摩瘤胃 促进 气体排出 口服止酵剂 本人在临床上很少使 用 灌服鱼石脂10 20 g 或松节油20 30 ml 具有止酵消胀作用 必要时可行瘤胃穿刺放 气 用套管针或瓣胃穿刺针 缓解症状 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 泡沫性臌气 重在消沫 用套管针或穿刺针向瘤 胃内注入消沫剂 从左肷窝隆起部位进针 或灌服 消沫剂 常用的有 液体石蜡500 1000 ml 鱼石脂 10 20 g 食用菜油 豆油 菜籽油 花生油 色拉 油等均可 300 500 ml 此法可以消去瘤胃中的泡 沫利于气体排出 必要时可切开瘤胃排气 然后按 外科手术要求处理切口 Five weeks of practice ended in this way and my feelings can only be summed up in eight words although hard but very substantial 慢性瘤胃臌气的治疗 除应用急性瘤胃臌气的疗 法外 还必须注意对原发病的治疗 预防 本病的预防重在搞好饲养管理 由干草转喂青 草时 应渐进性地更换
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