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chapter6 词类 转译
Appetizer n21.最近的人口统计显示中国人口已超过13亿。 n误 The latest census shows that Chinas population has surpassed 1.3 billion. n22. 我希望你不要拖我的后腿。 n误 I hope that you wont pull my leg. 23. 学校里,那些长得人高马大的家伙常来找我的麻烦。 n误 At school, those big and strong guys always come to find my trouble. n24. 原来如此。一经你解释我就明白了。 n误 So it is. I understand soon after your explanation. n25. 我没料到这个无耻的女人居然同她好友的丈夫调情。 n误 I had not expected that this shameful woman should flirt with her best friends husband. 21.正 The latest census shows that Chinas population exceeds 1.3 billion. n注:surpass 和 exceed 译成中文虽然都是“超过, 胜过”的意思,但出现具体数字时要用后者。 22. 正 I hope that you wont hold me back. n注:pull ones leg 是“愚弄某人,开某人的玩笑”的 意思,相当于 make fun of sb.。英语中与“拖后腿” 相对应的表达是 hold sb. back 或 be a drag on sb. 等。 23. 正 At school, those big and strong guys always come to pick on me. n注:find my trouble 是“发现我的难处”的意思,而英 语中“找某人的麻烦”用短语 pick on sb. 它不仅表示“ 挑剔某人、找某人的碴”,而且还包含 tease(取笑 、戏弄)或 bully(威胁、欺侮)的意思。 24. 正 So thats how it is. I understand soon after your explanation. n注: 在表达恍然大悟时,英文要用 So thats how it is 或 So that explains it, 或更简单地道的说法 Oh, I see. nSo it is 的意思是“的确如此”,它是用来表示对对方观点的赞同的 。例如: nA: It is a fine day today! B: So it is. 25. 正 I had not expected that this shameless woman should flirt with her best friends husband. n注:shameful 通常指某事物是“可耻的,丢脸的”,而 shameless 表示 having or showing no feeling of shame; immodest or impudent,它一般用来指人“不知羞耻的,不要脸的” 或“伤风败俗的”。原文也可译为:Its shameful that the woman should flirt with her best friends husband. Chapter 6 词类转译法(conversion of parts of speech) 在英译汉的过程中,有些句子可以逐词对译,有些句子则由 于英汉两种语言的表达方式不同,就不能用“一个萝卜一个坑”的 方法来逐词对译。翻译时在保持原文内容不变的前提下,改变原 文中某些词的此类,以求译文通顺自然,合乎译入语的表达习惯 。 如: For 20 years they were passive witnesses to the deterioration of prices of our raw materials and an excessive increase of the prices of manufactured goods. 原译:在20年中,他们是原材料价格下跌、工业品价格暴涨的消 极目击者。 改译: 20年中,他们见证了原材料价格下跌、工业品价格暴涨。 This watch never varies more than a second in a month.这 块表一个月的误差从不超过一秒。 英语中的vary改变,不同)为动词,汉语没有这样的表达习惯, 所以只能将其转换为名词“误差”. n6.1.1 英语的名词、形容词转换为汉语的动词、副词 n英语中具有动作意义或动词转化来的名词,在翻译时往往转换为动词 ,而修饰该名词的形容词便可相应地转换为副词。 n例如: We also realized the growing need and necessity to industrialize certain sectors of the economy. n The sight and sound of our jet planes filled me with special longing. 看到我们的喷气式飞机,听见隆隆的机声,我感到心驰神往。 There is bit increase in demand for all kinds of consumer goods in every part of our country. nThe design aims at automatic operation,easy regulation, simple maintenance and high productivity. 设计的目的在于自动操作,调节方便,维护简易,生产率高。 n英语和汉语比较起来,汉语中动词用得比较多,这是一个特点,往往 在英语句子中只用一个谓语动词,而在汉语中却可以几个动词或动词 性结构连用。因此,英语中不少词类(尤其是名词、介词、形容词和 副词)在汉译时往往可以转译成动词。 n具有动作意义或有动词转化过来的名词,如果后面 跟着起引导作用短语,前后两个名词往往是属于动 宾关系,可译成汉语的动宾短语。 n例如: His real mission in life was to contribute, in one way or another, to the overthrow of ruthless dictators. n这种句型有时也可以译成主谓(宾)结构。 n例如:This pessimistic forecast speaks of the destruction of the balance of nature--pollution, waste and hunger. Party officials worked long hours on meager food,iii cold caves,.by dim lamps. 党的干部每天长时间工作,吃的是粗茶淡饭,住的 是冰冷的窑洞,点的是黯淡的油灯。 nThe victory of justice over arbitrary acts, of reason over decadence and blindness, of democracy over imperialism, of good over evil, our victory of 25 October will represent one of the glorious pages of our history, and we shall be able to leave it to our heirs. n6.1.2 英语的动词、副词转换为汉语的名词、形容词, 如英语动词转换成汉语名词,修饰英语动词的副词随 之转换成汉语的形容词。 n例如: Independent observers have commented favorably on the achievements you have made in this direction. nThe volume of trade has increased tremendously to the advantage of both countries. n6.1.3 英语的形容词转换为汉语的动词:可转换为汉语 动词的英语形容词以现在分词和过去分词或动词同根 者居多,也有其他可以延伸为动词的形容词。 n3. 英语中有些加后缀-er的名词,如teacher教师,thinker 思想家等等,有时在句中并不指其身份和职业,而是含有 较强的动作意味,在汉语中没有恰当的对应名词时,往往 可以译成动词。如: n1) I am afraid I cant teach you swimming. I think my little brother is a better teacher than I. n我未必会教你游泳。我想我的小弟弟比我教得好。 n2) Talking with his son, the old man was the forgiver of the young mans past wrong doings. 在和儿子谈话时,老人宽恕了年轻人过去所干的坏事。 n4. 作为习语主体的名词往往可以转译成动词,如: n1) They took a final look at Iron Mike, still intact in the darkness. 他们最后看了铁麦克一眼--它依旧安然无恙地耸立在黑暗 中。 n2) The next news bulletin, shorter than usual, made no mention of the demonstration. 下一个新闻节目比通 常短,没有提到游行。 n例如:We seek a deep-rooted understanding through the multiplication of our economic, cultural, scientific, technical and human ties. n In Chinas approach to relations with other countries, we find a welcome emphasis on the principles of the equality of states and respect for the rights and views of small and middle powers. n英语用以表示知觉、感情、欲望等心理状态的形容词 与联系动词构成复合谓语时,汉译时一般总是转换为 动词。 afraid 害怕;content 满足;anxious 渴望; delighted 高兴;aware 觉察、知道; doubtful 怀疑;careful 当心、注意; familiar 熟悉; certain 确信;glad 高兴 grateful 感谢;thankful 感谢; ignorant 不知道; unaware 不知道; sorry 遗憾; uncertain 不能确定 sure 肯 定、确信 n n 6.1.4 6.1.4 英语的名词(形容词加后缀构成)转换成汉语的形容词英语的名词(形容词加后缀构成)转换成汉语的形容词 例如:例如:We are deeply convinced of the We are deeply convinced of the correctness correctness of this policy and firmly of this policy and firmly determined to pursue it.determined to pursue it. His words and deeds testify to his His words and deeds testify to his honesty. honesty. 6 6.1.5 .1.5 英语的形容词转换成汉语的名词:英语名词加后缀构成的形容词,与名词同根英语的形容词转换成汉语的名词:英语名词加后缀构成的形容词,与名词同根 或可转换成名词的形容词一般译成名词。或可转换成名词的形容词一般译成名词。 n例如: They expect us in the Community to work out policies of aid and trade which will show a sympathetic understanding of their own problems. nA week after his prelude to the Presidents visit, China was in. n6.1.6 英语作表语的副词可转换成汉语动词 n例如:The workers are out. n Shed be down in a little while. nThe new contract would be good for ten years. n新的合同有效期为10年。 n I have the honor to inform you that your request is granted. n我荣幸地通知您,您的请求已得到批准。 n6.1.7 英语的介词与介词词组可转成汉语的动 词:英语介词可带宾语,有些有动词转化而 来,具有动词属性和意义。 n例如: The road to development is long but we are firmly on it. nThe European Community is the best instrument for this purpose. n In view of human history this could be a slight enough hope. n小结:翻译无常规,正确的做法是:在吃透 原文的基础上,充分发挥汉语的表达优势, 向考卷或读者奉献一份质量上乘的译文。 More examples: n交易增加,要求流通的货币量也增加。 nAn increase in business requires an increase in the amount of money coming into general circulation. n我们特别强调搞好售后服务。 nWe lay special stress on the importance of offering good follow-up service. 汉语动词转译为英语形容词 n我们切不可满足于仅仅有的一点点书本知识。 nWe should never be content with a little book knowledge. n他热爱科学研究,但对提升职称不感兴趣。 nHe is keen on scientific research but indifferent to promotion. n大多数子女都要独立,不愿依靠他们的父母。 nMost children want to be independent of their parents. 汉语动词转译为英语介词或介词短语 n我们不应只追求名誉地位。 nWe should not be after only fame and position. n她漂亮得无法形容。 nHer beauty is beyond description. 汉语名词的转译 n汉语名词转译为英语动词 n他的画的特点是笔力沉着,颜色鲜明。 nHis paintings are characterized by steady strokes and bright colors. n他的呼吸有大蒜味道。 nHis breath smells of garlic. 汉语名词转译为英语形容词或副词 n我们应该尊老爱幼。 nWe should respect the old and love the young. n领导干部要讲政治。 nCadres should be politically minded. It is possible to convert energy from one form into another 可以把能从一种形式变为另一种形式。 Nylon is nearly twice as strong as natural silk。 尼龙的强度几乎是天然丝的两倍。 6.1 转译成动词 nHe is a good eater and sleeper. nThe appearance of the books on the market caused a sensation. nHe is a lover of Chinese paintings. nHe made no mention of the road accident at 11:30 last night. N V In spite of the growth of other kinds of transport, railroads continue to be, as they used to be over years, the backbone of the transportation industry. 尽管其他各种交通工具都发展了,铁路仍然是运输业的 骨干,正如它多年来一直是运输业的骨干一样。 Tips n大量使用 是英语的一个重要标志 ,而汉语中则大量使用 具有动词概念的名词往往转译成 名词 动词 See textbook p.54-56 6.2 形容词作表语通常译成动词 nDoctors have said that they are not sure they can save his life. nPart time barman requiredHours and salary negotiable. nHe is always considerate of others; he is kind and sympathetic. Adj. V. 3.The developed countries are full of skilled labor and capital, while developing countries which are lack of skilled workers and capital need to import technology-intensive products from these countries. 发达国家拥有大量的熟练劳动力和资本,而缺乏熟练工人 和资本的发展中国家需要从这些国家进口技术密集型产品 Adj. V. nYou are ignorant of the duties you undertake in marrying. 你完全不懂你在婚姻方面承担的责任。 The following plan may become available during the next decade. 下列计划在10年间可能实现。 Adj. V. 6.3 形容词转译成名词 the sick the wounded the rich the poor the old the infirm the ill the very young 6.4形容词译成副词 He asked me for a full account of myself and family. 他详尽地问起我自己和我家里的情况。 6.4 由名词派生的动词或名词转译成名 词 1)His style is characterized by brevity. 2) Formality has always characterized their relationship. 他们之间的关系,有一个特点,就是以礼 相待。 3) To them, he personified the absolute power. 在他们看来,他就是绝对权威的化身。 名词转用的动词 4) Most U.S. spy satellites are designed to burn up in the earths atmosphere after completing their missions. 美国绝大多数间谍卫星,按其设计,是在完成使命后, 在大气层中焚毁。 5)Trade union leaders claimed that some of their members had been victimized by being dismissed. n贸易联盟的领导们声称他们当中的一些成员 因被开除而受到迫害(伤害)。 n贸易联盟的领导们声称,他们中有些成员是 被那些开除了的人欺骗了的。 n贸易联盟的首领们声称他们中的一些成员已 作为牺牲品被解雇(开除了)。 n工会领袖认为有些会员成了被解雇的牺牲品 。 n工会领袖认为有些会员成了牺牲品被解雇了 。 Homework nHe was a regular visitor. nHe is no smoker, but his father is a chain- smoker. nAn acquaintance of world history is helpful to the study of current affairs. nTalking with the his son, the old man was the forgiver of the young mans past wrong doings. 1.We are especially thankful to you for arranging the meeting for us with the Machinery Trading Delegation at such short notice. nThey were not content with their present achievements. nHe was eloquent and elegant-but soft。他有口才、有风度,但他有口才、有风度,但 很软弱。很软弱。 1.This course of study is designed to help those wishing to teach abroad 2.The earth on which we live is shaped a ball. 6. Rockets have found application for the exploration of the universe.火箭已经用来探索宇宙。火箭已经用来探索宇宙。 7. They were considered insincere.7. They were considered insincere. 他们被人认为是伪君子。他们被人认为是伪君子。 8. He is physically weak but mentally sound.8. He is physically weak but mentally sound. 他身体虽弱,但思想健康。他身体虽弱,但思想健康。 P61 Exercise nOne way an organization can find staff for job vacancies is to recruit outside the company. It may opt to put an advertisement in a newspaper or magazine which gives a short description of the job and invites introductory letters from applicants. n企业机构找人补充职位空缺的办法之一是公司 实行对外招聘。它可以选择在报纸或杂志上登 广告,简要介绍工作职务的情况并征集应聘者 的自荐信。 加词 Recruit: 招募(新兵) to recruit new police officers 徵召新的警官 吸收(新成员) to recruit some new members 吸收新成员 nProfile 简介;个性及生平的简要描述 nprospective Likely or expected to happen. 有希望的可能或被 期望会发生的 Likely to become or be: 预期的 可能要成为或是的 prospective clients. 未来的经纪人 nRedeem: 1)to pay off a loan or mortgage 还清贷款或抵押贷款 We hope to redeem the mortgage by the end of the year. 2)to convert shares, bonds, loan stock, etc into money 兑换成现金;赎回 You can redeem some of your shares if you need some cash. nSince the company would not desire applicants who do not have a good profile, it is important that an application form sent to a prospective applicant should request clear information about such things as the applicants age, qualifications and work experience as well as references from other individuals who know the applicant well. n由于公司不会录用个人材料不佳的申请者,因此向有希望 的应聘者寄发包括诸如年龄、资历、工作经验等简明信息 的申请表,并向了解应聘者情况的有关人士征求参考意见 是很重要的。 加词加词 nThis information assists the companys management in making a final decision on those applicants they can short-list for an interview. n这些信息有助于公司管理部门缩小范围并最 终确定面试人员名单。 nShort-list:列入最后候选名单 nManagement:The person or persons who control or direct a business or other enterprise. 管理人员控制或掌握某商业或其 它企业的人员或人们 加词 nThe staff conducting an interview together are called an “interview panel”, who, prior to the interview, carefully review the job descriptions, personnel specifications, and applications. To help the panel in their selection, an interview assessment form is often used during the interview when each applicant is checked according to a number of criteria indicated on the form. n主持面试的工作人员组成“面试小组”。他们在面试之前 要仔细审阅工作职位情况介绍、人事要求和求职信。为 了有助于面试小组作出选择,在面试中经常使用面试评 定表以根据表上的若干标准对应聘者进行考评。 Exercises n1)徐悲鸿画马画得特别好。 n2)林则徐认为,要成功地制止鸦片买卖,就 得首先把鸦片焚毁。 n3)邓小平在“十一大”上说:“一定要少说空 话,多做工作。” n4)绝对不许违反这个原则。 n5)获悉贵国遭受地震,我们极为关切。 n6)这种人闹什么东西呢?闹名誉,闹地位, 闹出风头。 n7)他们不顾一切困难、挫折,坚持战斗。 n8)该厂产品的主要特点是工艺精湛,经久耐 用。 Answers 1) Xu Beihongs drawings of horses are exceptionally good. (动词转换为名词) 2) Lin Zexu believed that a successful ban of the trade in opium must be preceded, by,the destruction of the drug itself.(副词十动词转换为形容词十名词;动词转换为名词 ) 3) Deng Xiaoping said at the 11 th Party Congress,“There must be less empty talkand more hard work.”(副词动 词转换为形容词名词) 4) No violation of this principle can be tolerated:(动词转换 为形容词名词) 5) We are deeply concerned at the news that your country has: been struck by an earth-quake.(动词转换为形容词) 6) What are these people after?- They are after fame and position and want to be in the limelight.(动词转换为介词 ) 7) They kept on fighting in spite of all difficulties and setbacks.(动词转换为介词短语) 8) The products of this factory are chiefly characterized by their fine workmanship anddurability.(形容词名词转换 为副词动词)



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