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A Glimpse of Chinese Culture《中国文化概论》讲义-chapters 1-8

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AGlimpseofChineseCulture 中国文化 概论 讲义 chapters1
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Chapter 1The Origin of Chinese Culture文化词汇Confucian philosophy 儒家哲学 Confucius 孔子 Mencius 孟子the descendants of Yan and Huang 炎黄子孙the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States Periods 春秋战国时期The Art of War《孙子兵法》 porcelain 瓷器三皇五帝 Three Emperors and Five Sovereigns)Gregorian calendar/ solar calendar 格里高利历,是国际通用的历法,即公历 lunar calendar 阴历the Twenty-four Solar Terms 二十四节气Chinese Zodiac 生肖Chinese Culture---Past and PresentChinese history began with two legendary figures—Emperor Huang and Emperor Yan, who, together with their tribes, inhabited the drainage area along the middle reaches(中游) of the Yellow River. By the time of Xia Dynasty, after centuries of living side by side, these two tribes had gradually merged into(合并,融合) one. Consequently, the Chinese people usually call themselves “the descendants of Yan and Huang”. People at that time believed that the land they lived on was the center of the world, and called their state the “Middle Kingdom“(中国), thus giving China its country name.Traditional Chinese culture is recorded not only in history books and documents, but also in archeological records(考古记载), such as ancient city walls, palaces(宫殿), temples(寺庙), pagodas(宝塔), and grottos(洞窟); artifacts(史前古器物), such as bronze objects, weapons, bronze mirrors, coins, jade and pottery objects, and curios; and folk culture, including song and dance, embroidery(刺绣), cuisine(烹饪), clothing, tea ceremonies, drinking games, lanterns, riddles, martial arts(武术), chess and kites. With a continuous history of 5,000 years, it has undergone frequent transformations to produce a rich and vital cultural heritage.In the modern day, with the rise of western economic and military power beginning in the mid-19th century, Western systems of social and political organization have gained adherents in China. Indeed, within today’s globalized environment, modern cultures interact and cooperate increasingly more with each other. China’s culture of the future will most likely reflect this cross-cultural dimension. Thus, obtaining a solid understanding of China’s culture of the past is necessary in order to successfully embrace all that the culture has to offer to the world.The Appellation of ChinaChina is the appellation of our country given by foreigners. The porcelain china is the transliteration of the place name Changnan(昌南), which was the old name for Jingdezhen(景德镇). The porcelain made in Changnan was smooth and bright, and earned another name of artificial jade. It became famous both home and abroad and was exported to Europe in large quantities.As time passed, people in Europe forgot the meaning of Changnan and switched the original meaning of porcelain of the word “china” to the place of its origin.The Alternative Names of ChinaChixian, Shenzhou(赤县、神州)Jiuzhou (九州)Hua ( 华)Huaxia(华夏)Zhonghua(中华)Hainei(海内)Chinese MythologyChinese Mythology is a collection of cultural history, folktales(民间故事), and religions that have been passed down in oral or written form. Chinese mythology is similar to modern religion in that they both believe in relationships between mankind and a higher power.Historians have conjectured(推测) that Chinese mythology began in 12th century BC (close to the time of the Trojan War 特洛伊战争). The myths and legends were passed down in oral form for over a thousand years, before being written down in early book such as Shui Jing Zhu and Shan Hai Jing.The classification of myth 神话的分类神话的分类Creation myth 创世神话: Nvwa Created Man(女娲造人)Hero myth 英雄神话: Houyi Shooting the Sun(后羿射日)War myth 战争神话: Yellow Emperor Tackled Human-God(黄帝擒蚩尤)Cultural MosaicHeavenly Stems and Earthly BranchesThe standard Gregorian calendar is generally referred to as the solar calendar in China. The traditional Chinese lunar calendar, also known as the Jiazi calendar, counts the years in sixty-year cycles by combining two series of numbers---the 10 Heavenly Stems and 12 Earthly Branches.The Twenty-four Solar TermsThe traditional Chinese lunar year is divided into twenty-four solar terms, according to the position of the sun on the ecliptic in relationship to the earth. The solar terms designate agricultural periods, and can predict changing seasonal conditions, temperature, and weather throughout the course of the year. They are extremely important to agricultural production.Changes in the four seasons are determined by eight solar terms:立春( the Beginning of Spring),春分( the Spring Equinox ),立夏 (the Beginning of Summer ),夏至 (the Summer Solstice),立秋 (the Beginning of Autumn),秋分( the Autumnal Equinox),立冬( the Beginning of Winter),冬至 (the Winter Solstice )Changes in temperature are indicated by five solar terms:小暑 Slight Heat ,大暑 Great Heat ,处暑 the Limit of Heat ,小寒 Slight Cold ,大寒 Great Cold Changing weather conditions are indicated by seven solar terms:雨水 Rain Water ,谷雨 Grain Rain ,白露 White Dew ,寒露 Cold Dew,霜降 Frost's Descent ,小雪 Slight Snow ,大雪 Great Snow .Recurring natural phenomena are indicated by four solar terms:惊蛰 the Waking of Insects ,清明 Pure Brightness ,小满 Grain Full,芒种 Grain in Ear Chinese ZodiacIn ancient times, our ancestors counted the years with 10 heavenly stems and 12 earthly branches. Although this was scientific, most people were illiterate and could not memorize or calculate easily. Thus the animals that influenced people's lives were chosen to symbolize the terrestrial branches: the rat, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, sheep, monkey , rooster, dog and pig.Chapter 2 Culinary Culture文化词汇文化词汇culinary 厨房的,烹饪的;烹调用的 cuisine 烹饪,烹调法;菜肴main food 主食,主粮( staple food )Fire temperature 火候food tonic 食补““Food is the first necessity of the people””(““民以食为天。民以食为天。 ””)““Governing a great nation is like cooking a small fish - too much handling will spoil it.””( Lao-tzu, Chinese philosopher) (““治大国若烹小鲜。治大国若烹小鲜。 ””) Well fed, well bred. 衣食足,而后知礼节。衣食足,而后知礼节。“There is neither rejection to his rice being of the finest quality, nor to his meat being finely minced.”(食不厌精,脍不厌细食不厌精,脍不厌细).A general introduction of Chinese foodChinese cuisine(菜肴)is widely seen as representing one of the richest and most diverse culinary(烹饪的) cuisines and heritages in the world.A meal in Chinese culture is typically seen as consisting of two or more general components: Zhushi (main food)---typically rice, noodles, or mantou (steamed bun), and accompanying dishes of vegetables, meat, fish, or other items, known as cai (dish) in the Chinese language. This cultural conceptualization is in some ways in contrast to cuisines of Northern Europe and the USA, where meat or animal protein(蛋白质 ) is often considered the main food(主食).Rice is a critical part of much of Chinese cuisine. However, in northern China, wheat-based products including noodles and steamed buns predominate(占支配地位). Soup is usually served at the end of a meal. However, in southern China it is more often served at the start of a meal.Food symbolismIn China, foods are given particular meanings, so that in certain occasion a type of food, can only be eaten by some specific individuals, or must be eaten in specific occasion.The Chinese word for fish “Yu” sounds like the word abundance(盈余). As a result, fish is always served to symbolize accumulations of prosperity and wealth with the New Year's Eve meals. In addition, the fish is served whole, with the head and the tail attached, symbolizing a good beginning and ending for the coming year.Long noodle is the symbol of longevity(长寿) in Chinese culture. They are as much a part of Chinese birthday celebrations as a birthday cake with lit candles in many countries, so that youngsters or seniors all will have a bowl of Long Life Noodle in the expectation of a healthy life.The Chinese believe eggs symbolize fertility. After a baby is born, parents may hold a “red egg and ginger party”, where they serve round hard-boiled eggs to announce the birth. Seeds---lotus seeds(莲子) , watermelon seeds, etc.---represent bearing many children in Chinese culture. In a Chinese wedding, people often put red dates(红枣) , peanuts, Longan, and lotus seeds on the bed of the new couple, representing they will reproduce very soon.Chinese cooking art The complete presence of color, shape, aroma(芳香,香味) and flavor(色香味形俱全)Color:To have a bright, pleased and harmonious color is one of the main principles when cooking Chinese food. Shape:Shape mainly depends on methods of cutting.Aroma:Aroma means the fragrant and appetizing smell of the dishes.Flavor:Flavor refers to tasting the food: salty, sweet, sour, bitter, hot, etc.Cooking MethodsTime and temperature play an important role in cooking. They include boiling (煮), stewing (煲/炖), braising (烧/焖/烩), frying (煎), stir-frying (炒), quick-frying (爆), deep-frying (炸), frying and simmering (扒), sautéing (快煎), simmering (煨), smoking (熏), roasting or barbecuing (烤), baking (烘), steaming (蒸) and scalding (白灼).SeasoningsTaste mainly depends on the seasonings. There are many tastes—salty (salt, soy sauce), sweet (sugar, honey), sour (vinegar), pungent (chili, ginger, scallion 葱), fragrant (sesame oil 香油, coriander 香菜, wine), prickled (麻的) (prickly ash 花椒) and tangy (monosodium glutamate or MSG 味精) and bitter (dried tangerine 陈皮, bitter apricot kernel 苦杏仁).Eight CuisinesChina is a vast country with diverse climate, customs, products, and habits. People in coastal areas prefer seafood and aquatic(水产的) products, whereas those in central and northwest China eat more domestic animals and poultry. All together, the most influential and typical known by the public are the 'Eight Cuisines'. These are as follows: Shandong Cuisine, Sichuan Cuisine, Guangdong Cuisine, Fujian Cuisine , Jiangsu Cuisine, Zhejiang Cuisine, Hunan Cuisine, and Anhui Cuisine. Table mannersAt a formal banquet, the host prepares adequate seating for the guests. For a large number of guests, the elderly or people of high status are allocated specific seats. Special guests and elderly sit on the north side of the table or directly facing the entrance to the room. The concept of “honored south, humble north” is closely related with traditional Chinese etiquette.(一)Some Specific Guidelines: -- Wait for the elders to begin the meal first. -- When a new course is served, the elders are first to eat. -- Since the food stand rotates on the round table, eat only what is in front of you. -- Leave some food on the dish, but empty the rice in your rice bowl. -- Chinese enjoy eating very much and are noisy during meals. It is important to adopt the same mood with a good attitude and joyful conversations.(二)Some Don’ts: -- Don’t Chew with Your Mouth Open-- Don’t Make noise while eating-- Don’t Speak with Your Mouth Full-- Don’t Pick/Suck Teeth-- Don’t Put Your Elbows on the Table-- Don’t Spit Food (Bones, Skin, etc.) out of Your Mouth-- Don’t Pick Up Your Plate or Bowl-- Don’t Pass Gas Or Burp-- Don’t Clean Ears with Fingernails-- Don’t Smoke-- Don’t eat only one food that suits your taste best. -- Don’t flip over fish.-- Don’t get more food if there is some left in your dish, and wait for your turn after you empty your dish.-- Don’t Select food too slowly. Chapter3 Tea and Wine CultureChinese Tea CultureChina has a rich and sophisticated(成熟的) tea culture. The Chinese have a common saying, “Seven things in the house: firewood, rice, oil, salt, soy sauce, vinegar and tea”. Tea is a simple beverage(饮料), and one that has long been central to the lives of millions of people, originally in the East, and now virtually worldwide.The History of Tea Culture“Tea as a beverage originated with Shennong.“ ——The Classic of Tea“茶为之饮,发乎神农也。 ” ——《茶经》“Shennong tasted hundreds of herbs; he encountered seventy two poisons daily and used tea as an antidote.““神农尝百草,日遇七十二喜,得茶而解之。 ” ——《神农本草经》It is often said that “tea started in the Tang Dynasty and flourished in the Song Dynasty”. In the Tang Dynasty a method called “green steaming” was invented. After steaming, the tea leaves were ground, made into cakes, and then dried and sealed for storage. In the Tang Dynasty, Lu Yu(陆羽), the Saint of Tea/Tea sage ”(茶圣), wrote the world’s first monograph《The Classic of Tea》 (《茶经》).Tea was popular among men of letters(文人), the upper class , the temple and ordinary people in Song dynasty.Then, in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), tea culture underwent a renaissance(复兴) with the familiar dark tea, green tea, and Oolong tea all developed during this time. Zhu Yuanzhang (reigned 1368-1398), the first Ming Emperor, oversaw a change from roll tea to loose tea, and this tradition has been retained ever since.As their understanding of tea improved, people were no longer content to harvest tea from the wild, but began to plant and cultivate tea trees, while at the same time processing techniques were improving, with different methods producing different types of tea.•The Classifications of Chinese TeaGreen tea 绿茶 Black tea 红茶 Oolong tea 乌龙茶Yellow tea 黄茶 White tea 白茶 Scented tea 花茶Compressed tea 砖茶•Customs of Tea Drinking•unique customs of taking tea in different regions and of different nationalities:•Guangdong Morning tea•Fujian Kongfu tea• Hunan Lei tea•Sichuan “covered-bowl tea”• The Bai nationality “Three Cups of Tea ”•Tibetan Buttered tea(酥油茶) •Inner Mongolia Milk tea•To show respect •To apologize •To express thanks to the elders on one’s wedding dayChinese Wine CultureThe Origin of Chinese WineChinese wine, as a special form of culture, has a history of more than five thousand years . Chinese wine making can be traced back as far as 4000 BC, to the early period of the Neolithic Yangshao Culture (新石器时代的仰韶文化 ). During its long development, Chinese wine has developed distinctive characteristics. Types of Chinese WineHuangjiu (yellow rice wine)Huangjiu is one of three dominated brewed wines (beer and grape wine) in the world. Huang Jiu predates all the other liquors, with a history of several thousand years. Among these liquors the Shaoxing Rice Wine is the most famous.Baijiu(white wine)Being made from sorghum, corn, barley or wheatFruit WineFermented alcoholic beverages made from a variety of base ingredients (other than grapes); May also have additional flavors taken from fruits, flowers, and herbs. Red WineA type of wine made from dark-coloured (black) grape varieties. The actual colour of the wine can range from intense violet, typical of young wines, through to brick red for mature wines and brown for older red wines. BeerToast etiquetteChinese Drinking Etiquette(礼仪)The Chinese people care more about the people we drink with.That is Chinese drinking etiquette reflects the respect of the drinkersThe host and guests have their own seat and order of toast(敬酒顺序)When toast,the host come first,and firstly,they should toast the most honored guest.Tthe wine vessel must be full.The younger should toast the elder and drink all of the wine.(先干为敬)Western Drinking EtiquetteThe drinking etiquette of west show the respect of wine.To distinguish wine we need to watch its color,
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