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GRE阅读白皮书全部文章和题目 (1)

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目录目录 Unit 1 . 6 Passage 1 6 Passage 2 7 Passage 3 . 10 Passage 4 . 11 Passage 5 . 12 Unit 2 . 16 Passage 6 . 16 Passage 7 . 18 Passage 8 . 20 Passage 9 . 23 Passage 10 . 26 Passage 11 . 29 Passage 12 . 31 Passage 13 . 33 Passage 14 . 35 Passage 15 . 38 Unit 3 . 42 Passage 16 . 42 Passage 17 . 44 Passage 18 . 46 Passage 19 . 49 Passage 20 . 52 Passage 21 . 54 Passage 22 . 56 Passage 23 . 57 Passage 24 . 60 Passage 25 . 62 Unit 4 . 66 Passage 26 . 66 Passage 27 . 68 Passage 28 . 70 Passage 29 . 71 Passage 30 . 74 Passage 31 . 77 Passage 32 . 80 Passage 33 . 81 Passage 34 . 84 Passage 35 . 87 Unit 5 . 89 Passage 36 . 89 Passage 37 . 91 Passage 38 . 93 Passage 39 . 94 Passage 40 . 96 Passage 41 . 99 Passage 42 . 101 Passage 43 . 103 Passage 44 . 106 Passage 45 . 108 Passage 46 . 110 Unit 6 . 112 Passage 47 . 112 Passage 48 . 115 Passage 49 . 118 Passage 50 . 121 Unit 7 . 125 Passage 51 . 125 Passage 52 . 126 Passage 53 . 127 Passage 54 . 128 Passage 55 . 131 Passage 56 . 132 Unit 8 . 135 Passage 57 . 135 Passage 58 . 138 Passage 59 . 140 Passage 60 . 143 Passage 61 . 144 Passage 62 . 147 Passage 63 . 148 Passage 64 . 151 Passage 65 . 153 Passage 66 . 156 Unit 9 . 159 Passage 67 . 159 Passage 68 . 162 Passage 69 . 164 Passage 70 . 167 Passage 71 . 168 Passage 72 . 171 Passage 73 . 172 Passage 74 . 175 Passage 75 . 177 Passage 76 . 180 Unit 10 . 183 Passage 77 . 183 Passage 78 . 186 Passage 79 . 187 Passage 80 . 190 Passage 81 . 192 Passage 82 . 195 Passage 83 . 197 Passage 84 . 199 Passage 85 . 200 Passage 86 . 202 Unit 11 . 205 Passage 87 . 205 Passage 88 . 207 Passage 89 . 208 Passage 90 . 209 Passage 91 . 211 Passage 92 . 213 Passage 93 . 215 Passage 94 . 217 Passage 95 . 218 Passage 96 . 220 Unit 12 . 223 Passage 97 . 223 Passage 98 . 225 Passage 99 . 227 Passage 100 229 Passage 101 231 Passage 102 232 Passage 103 233 Passage 104 235 Passage 105 238 Passage 106 241 Unit 13 . 243 Passage 107 243 Passage 108 246 Passage 109 247 Passage 110 250 Passage 111 . 251 Passage 112 253 Passage 113 256 Passage 114 257 Passage 115 260 Passage 116 262 Unit 14 . 265 Passage 117 265 Passage 118 267 Passage 119 269 Passage 120 272 Passage 121 273 Passage 122 276 Passage 123 278 Passage 124 281 Passage 125 282 Passage 126 284 Unit 15 . 287 Passage 127 287 Passage 128 290 Passage 129 293 Passage 130 296 Passage 131 299 Passage 132 302 Passage 133 305 Passage 134 308 Passage 135 311 Passage 136 314 Unit 16 . 318 Passage 137 318 Passage 138 321 Passage 139 323 Passage 140 326 Passage 141 329 Passage 142 332 Passage 143 335 Passage 144 338 Passage 145 339 Passage 146 341 Unit 17 . 344 Passage 147 344 Passage 148 347 Passage 149 350 Passage 150 351 Passage 151 354 Passage 152 357 Passage 153 360 Passage 154 363 Passage 155 366 Passage 156 369 Unit 18 . 373 Passage 157 373 Passage 158 375 Passage 159 378 Passage 160 379 Passage 161 382 Passage 162 385 Passage 163 387 Passage 164 390 Passage 165 391 Passage 166 394 Unit 19 . 398 Passage 167 398 Passage 168 400 Passage 169 403 Passage 170 405 Passage 171 408 Passage 172 411 Passage 173 413 Passage 174 416 Passage 175 419 Unit 20 . 423 Passage 176 423 Passage 177 426 Passage 178 429 Passage 179 431 Passage 180 435 Passage 181 438 Passage 182 441 Passage 183 443 Passage 184 446 Unit 21 . 451 Passage 185 451 Passage 186 454 Passage 187 457 Passage 188 460 Passage 189 462 Passage 190 465 Passage 191 468 Passage 192 471 Passage 193 474 Passage 194 476 Unit 22 . 479 Passage 195 479 Passage 196 481 Passage 197 482 Passage 198 483 Passage 199 485 Passage 200 487 Passage 201 488 Passage 202 489 Passage 203 491 Passage 204 494 Unit 1 Passage 1 ❶Was Felix Mendelssohn (1809–1847) a great composer? ❷On its face, the question seems absurd. ❸One of the most gifted prodigies in the history of music, he produced his first masterpiece at sixteen. ❹From then on, he was recognized as an artist of preternatural abilities, not only as a composer but also as a pianist and conductor. ❺But Mendelssohn‘s enduring popularity has often been at odds — sometimes quite sharply — with his critical standing. ❻Despite general acknowledgment of his genius, there has been a noticeable reluctance to rank him with, say, Schumann or Brahms. ❼As Haggin put it, Mendelssohn, as a composer, was a ―minor master . . . working on a small scale of emotion and texture.‖ 1. Select a sentence in the passage whose function is to indicate the range of Mendelssohn‘s musical talents. 2. The passage suggests that anyone attempting to evaluate Mendelssohn‘s career must confront which of the following dichotomies? A. The tension between Mendelssohn‘s career as a composer and his career as a pianist and conductor B. The contrast between Mendelssohn‘s popularity and that of Schumann and Brahms C. The discrepancy between Mendelssohn‘s popularity and his standing among critics D. The inconsistency between Mendelssohn‘s reputation during his lifetime and his reputation since his death E. The gap between Mendelssohn‘s prodigious musical beginnings and his decline in later years. 3. The author mentions Schumann and Brahms primarily in order to A. provide examples of composers who are often compared with Mendelssohn B. identify certain composers who are more popular than Mendelssohn C. identify composers whom Mendelssohn influenced D. establish the milieu in which Mendelssohn worked E. establish a standard of comparison for Mendelssohn as a composer Passage 2 ❶The age at which young children begin to make moral discriminations about harmful actions committed against themselves or others has been the focus of recent research into the moral development of children. ❷Until recently, child psychologists supported pioneer developmentalist Jean. Piaget in his hypothesis that because of their immaturity, children under age seven do not take into account the intentions of a person committing accidental or deliberate harm, but rather simply assign punishment for transgressions on the basis of the magnitude of the negative consequences caused. ❸According to Piaget, children under age seven occupy the first stage of moral development, which is characterized by moral absolutism (rules made by authorities must be obeyed) and imminent justice (if rules are broken, punishment will be meted out). ❹Until young children mature, their moral judgments are based entirely on the effect rather than the cause of a transgression. ❺However, in recent research, Keasey found that six-year-old children not only distinguish between accidental and intentional harm, but also judge intentional harm as naughtier, regardless of the amount of damage produced. ❻Both of these findings seem to indicate that children, at an earlier age than Piaget claimed, advance into the second stage of moral development, moral autonomy, in which they accept social rules but view them as more arbitrary than do children in the first stage. ❶Keasey‘s research raises two key questions for developmental psychologists about children under age seven: do they recognize justifications for harmful actions, and do they make distinctions between harmful acts that are preventable and those acts that have unforeseen harmful consequences? ❷Studies indicate that justifications excusing harmful actions might include public duty, self-defense, and provocation. ❸For example, Nesdale and Rule concluded that children were capable of considering whether or not an aggressor‘s action was justified by public duty: five year olds reacted very differently to ―Bonnie wrecks Ann‘s pretend house‖ depending on whether Bonnie did it ―so somebody won‘t fall over it‖ or because Bonnie wanted ―to make Ann feel bad.‖ ❹Thus, a child of five begins to understand that certain harmful actions, though intentional, can be justified; the constraints of moral absolutism no longer solely guide their judgments. ❶Psychologists have determined that during kindergarten children learn to make subtle distinctions involving harm. ❷Darley observed that among acts involving unintentional harm, six-year-old children just entering kindergarten could not differentiate between foreseeable, and thus preventable, harm and unforeseeable harm for which the perpetrator cannot be blamed. ❸Seven months later, however, Darley found that these same children could make both distinctions, thus demonstrating that they had become morally autonomous. 21. Which of the following best describes the passage as a whole? (A) An outline for future research (B) An expanded definition of commonly misunderstood terms (C) An analysis of a dispute between two theorists (D) A discussion of research findings in an ongoing inquiry (E) A confirmation of an established authority‘s theory 22. According to the passage, Darley found that after seven months of kindergarten six year olds acquired which of the following abilities? (A) Differentiating between foreseeable and unforeseeable harm (B) Identifying with the perpetrator of a harmful action (C) Justifying harmful actions that result from provocation (D) Evaluating the magnitude of negative consequences resulting from the breaking of rules (E) Recognizing the difference between moral absolutism and moral autonomy 23. According to the passage, Piaget and Keasey would not have agreed on which of the following points? (A) The kinds of excuses children give for harmful acts they commit (B) The age at which children begin to discriminate between intentional and unintentional harm (C) The intentions children have in perpetrating harm (D) The circumstances under which children punish harmful acts (E) The justifications children recognize for mitigating punishment for harmful acts 24. It can be inferred that the term ―public duty‖ in the context of the passage means which of the following? (A) The necessity to apprehend perpetrators. (B) The responsibility to punish transgressors (C) An obligation to prevent harm to another (D) The assignment of punishment for harmful action (E) A justification for punishing transgressions 25. According to the passage, Keasey‘s findings support which of the following conclusions about six-year-old children? (A) They have the ability to make autonomous moral judgments. (B) They regard moral absolutism as a threat to their moral autonomy. (C) They do not understand the concept of public duty. (D) They accept moral judgment made by their peers more easily than do older children. (E) They make arbitrary moral judgments. 26. It can be inferred from the passage that Piaget would be likely to agree with which of the following statements about the punishment that children under seven assign to wrongdoing? (A) The severity of the assigned punishment is determined by the perceived magnitude of negative consequences more than by any other factor. (B) The punishment is to be administered immediately following the transgression. (C) The children assign punishment less arbitrarily than they do when they reach the age of moral autonomy. (D) The punishment for acts of unintentional harm is less severe than it is for acts involving accidental harm. (E) The more developmentally immature a child, the more severe the punishment that the child will assign. 27. According to the passage, the research of Nesdale and Rule suggests which of the following about five-year-old children? (A) Their reactions to intentional and accidental harm determine the severity of the punishments they assign. (B) They, as perpetrators of harmful acts, disregard the feelings of the children they harm. (C) They take into account the motivations(intention 的改写,也就是 justification) of actions when judging the behavior of other children. (D) They view public duty as a justification for accidental, but not intentional, harm. (E) They justify any action that protects them from harm. Passage 3 ❶Allen and Wolkowitz‘s research challenges the common claim that homework—waged labor performed at home for a company—is primarily a response to women workers‘ needs and preferences. ❷By focusing on a limited geographical area in order to gather in-depth information, the authors have avoided the methodological pitfalls that have plagued earlier research on homework. ❸Their findings disprove accepted notions about homeworkers: that they are unqualified for other jobs and that they use homework as a short-term strategy for dealing with child care. ❶The authors conclude that the persistence of homework cannot be explained by appeal to such notions, for, in fact, homeworkers do not differ sharply from other employed women. ❷Most homeworkers would prefer to work outside the home but are constrained from doing so by lack of opportunity. ❸In fact, homework is driven by employers‘ desires to minimize fixed costs: homeworkers receive no benefits and are paid less than regular employees. 24. The passage is primarily concerned with (A) advocating a controversial theory (B) presenting and challenging the results of a study (C) describing a problem and proposing a solution (D) discussing research that opposes a widely accepted belief (E) comparing several explanations for the same phenomenon 25. According to the passage, which of the following has been generally believed about homework? (A) The benefits of homework accrue primarily to employers rather than to homeworkers. (B) Homework is prevalent predominantly in rural areas. (C) Homework is primarily a response to the preferences of women workers. (D) Few homeworkers rely on homework for the majority of their family income. (E) Most homework is seasonal and part-time rather than full-time and year-round. 26. Allen and Wolkowitz‘s research suggests that each of the following is true of most homeworkers EXCEPT: (A) They do not necessarily resort to homework as a strategy for dealing with child care. (B) Their family situations are not unlike those of other employed women. (C) They are as well qualified as women who work outside the home. (D) They perform professional-level duties rather than manual tasks or piecework. (E) They do not prefer homework to employment outside the home. 27. The passage suggests which of the following about previous research on homework? (A) It was conducted primarily with women who did not have extensive household responsibilities or care for small children at home. (B) It was conducted with homeworkers and companies over a large geographical area. (C) It indicated that women homeworkers had numerous opportunities to work outside the home. (D) It indicated that homeworkers usually work for companies that are close to their homes. (E) It indicated that homework was financially advantageous to large companies. Passage 4 ❶According to the conventional view, serfdom in nineteenth-century Rus
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